By V. Copper. Chicago School of Professional Psychology. 2018.
In addition cheap famvir 250mg mastercard, special foods rich in factors that help protect the liver from damage and improve liver function include high-sulfur foods such as garlic famvir 250mg otc, legumes buy 250mg famvir with amex, onions, and eggs; good sources of soluble ﬁber such as pears, oat bran, apples, and legumes; vegetables in the brassica family, especially broccoli, brussels sprouts, and cabbage; artichokes, beets, carrots, and dandelion; many herbs and spices such as turmeric, cinnamon, and cilantro; and green leafy vegetables that enhance detoxification processes in the liver. Nutritional Supplements Betaine and Other Lipotropic Factors Betaine, choline, methionine, vitamin B6, folic acid, and vitamin B12 are important lipotropic agents, compounds that promote the ﬂow of fat and bile to and from the liver. Lipotropic agents have a long history of use in naturopathic medicine; in essence, they produce a “decongesting” effect on the liver and promote improved liver function and fat metabolism. The important thing in taking a lipotropic formula is to take enough to provide a daily dose of 1,000 mg betaine, 1,000 mg choline, and 1,000 mg methionine and/or cysteine. Carnitine plays an extremely important role in the utilization and metabolism of fatty acids in the liver as well as in the function of mitochondria, the energy-producing part of cells. Carnitine supplementation has been shown to signiﬁcantly inhibit and even reverse alcohol-induced fatty liver disease. Since carnitine normally facilitates fatty acid transport and oxidation in the mitochondria, a high carnitine level may be needed to handle the increased fatty acid load produced by alcohol consumption or other liver injury. Results demonstrated signiﬁcant improvements in the carnitine group, including improvement in liver function and evidence of improved mitochondrial function. Bile Acids Bile acids are naturally occurring compounds such as ursodeoxycholic acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid that, like the liptropic agents described above, are effective in promoting the ﬂow of bile and fat to and from the liver. Bile acid preparations are available by prescription, but mixtures of bile acids from ox bile are available in health food stores and may prove to be suitable alternatives. Botanical Medicines There is a long list of plants that have beneﬁcial effects on liver function. However, the most impressive research is with the extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) known as silymarin. For more information on silymarin, see the chapter “Detoxification and Internal Cleansing. Certain foods are particularly helpful because they contain the nutrients the liver needs to produce and activate the dozens of enzymes involved in the various phases of detoxification or aid in the effective elimination of toxins. Such foods include: • Garlic, legumes, onions, eggs, and other foods with a high sulfur content. Osteoarthritis • Mild early-morning stiffness, stiffness following periods of rest, pain that worsens on joint use, loss of joint function • Local tenderness, soft tissue swelling, joint crepitus (crackling sound), bony swelling, and restricted mobility • X-ray findings (narrowed joint spaces, cartilage erosion, bone spurs, etc. The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis, which is also known as degenerative joint disease because it is characterized by joint degeneration and loss of cartilage, the shock-absorbing gel-like material between joints. Surveys have indicated that more than 40 million Americans have osteoarthritis, including 80% of those over the age of 50. Under age 45, osteoarthritis is much more common in men; after 45, it is a little more common in women. In primary osteoarthritis, the degenerative wear-and-tear process occurs after the ﬁfth or sixth decade of life, with no apparent predisposing abnormalities. The cumulative effects of decades of use leads to the degenerative changes by stressing the collagen matrix, the support structure of the cartilage. Damage to the cartilage results in the release of enzymes that destroy cartilage components. With aging, the ability to restore and synthesize normal cartilage structures decreases. The incidence of osteoarthritis increases dramatically with age and body mass index for weight-bearing joints. Contributors to Osteoarthritis Age-related changes in collagen-matrix repair mechanisms Altered biochemistry Fractures and mechanical damage Genetic predisposition Hormonal and sex factors Hypermobility/joint instability Inflammation Inflammatory joint disease Other factors One of the most interesting clinical features of osteoarthritis is the lack of correlation between its severity as determined by X-rays and the degree of pain. In some cases the joint appears essentially normal, with little if any joint space narrowing, yet the pain can be excruciating. On the other hand, there are cases where there is tremendous deformity, yet little if any pain. In fact, about 40% of individuals with the worst X-ray classiﬁcation for osteoarthritis are pain free. Therapeutic Considerations Normally the body deals with damage to cartilage by attempting to repair itself. The major therapeutic goal should be to decrease the rate of damage and enhance the repair and regeneration of the collagen matrix. All subjects had X-ray changes suggestive of advanced osteoarthritis, yet the researchers reported marked clinical improvement and X-ray evidence of repair in 14 of 31 hips over time. Although these drugs provide short-term symptomatic relief, they do not address the cause of the problem and may actually increase the rate of degeneration of the joint cartilage. Diet and Exercise The key dietary focus in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis is the achievement of normal body weight and improvement in insulin sensitivity. Excess weight means increased stress on weight- bearing joints, and there is also considerable evidence linking osteoarthritis to insulin resistance (see the chapter “Obesity and Weight Management”). Insulin resistance not only increases inﬂammation but also impairs cartilage regeneration. Weight reduction, possibly due to a combination of mechanical and physiological factors, reduces the risk for osteoarthritis and has also been shown to reduce pain and improve cartilage function in existing osteoarthritis, especially when combined with exercise. When arthritis pain develops, sufferers often tend to reduce activity, and inactivity in turn decreases muscle strength. Muscle weakness increases joint wear, and the inactivity can lead to weight gain, which can worsen osteoarthritis, causing this cycle to repeat itself. In addition, patients with diabetes and cardiovascular concerns who limit their exercise may also increase their risk related to these illnesses. Weight loss and exercise independently decrease the causative factors of osteoarthritis and produce clinical improvement, but the best results are achieved by a combined approach. One study involved 252 obese elderly patients with a body mass index greater than 28 and X-ray-conﬁrmed osteoarthritis who were randomized into healthful-lifestyle (control), diet-only, exercise-only, and diet-plus- exercise groups. The dietary interventions were intended to produce an average weight loss of 5% during the 18-month period. Compared with control patients and the diet-only group, subjects in the diet-plus-exercise group gained a signiﬁcant improvement in self-reported physical function, six- minute walking distance, stair-climb times, and knee pain scores. Improvements in the exercise-only group were limited to the six-minute walking distance. In general, the principles detailed in the chapter “A Health-Promoting Diet” are appropriate for osteoarthritis. As with other degenerative health conditions, the Mediterranean diet may show positive effects in arthritis. The Mediterranean diet includes abundant plant foods (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds); minimally processed, seasonal, locally grown foods; ﬁsh and poultry; olive oil as the main source of fat; and dairy products, red meat, and wine in low to moderate amounts. Thus the diet is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and unreﬁned carbohydrates. The Mediterranean diet has shown signiﬁcant effects in rheumatoid arthritis in two recent studies and may show similar benefit in osteoarthritis. A horticulturist, Norman Childers, arrived at this method after ﬁnding that this simple dietary elimination cured his own arthritis. Presumably these alkaloids inhibit normal collagen repair in the joints or promote inﬂammatory degeneration of the joint. Nutritional Supplements Glucosamine Glucosamine sulfate has emerged as the most popular nutritional approach to osteoarthritis.
Gratzl-Köhler: Spezielle Pathologie Manual of Systematic Bacteriology I ref 206:534 generic 250mg famvir fast delivery, 1967 purchase 250mg famvir visa. Stuttgart effective famvir 250 mg, Ferdinand Enke les, Sydney, Williams and Wilkins, omy of mycobactin-dependent myco- tis in chickens caused by spirochetes. Tagung Vogelkrankheiten recovery of Pasteurella pseudotuber- cobycterium tuberculosis infection in tions in pigeons. J Path Bact a yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Ama- Symp Avian Med Surg, 1989, pp 113- 32. Heesemann J: Enteropathogene xella (Pasteurella) anatipestifer to the ing scheme for mycobacterial sero- tines. Because the same agent is involved, the use of the term chlamydiosis to describe infections caused by this organism should be encouraged. This organism is capable of auto- nomic synthesis of species-specific enzymes, but de- pends on the host cell for energy (by means of adeno- sine triphosphate and nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate) and probably some amino acids, par- ticularly tryptophan. Newly formed elementary bodies are re- leased, not always by lysis of the host cell. The first step in replication is the attachment to and penetration of a target cell (mainly columnar Serovars epithelial cells of mucous membranes and mononu- C. The process is comparable to receptor-mediated monoclonal antibodies: psittacine, pigeon I, duck, endocytosis. By remaining in an endosome, Whether or not the parrot serovar and turkey se- the chlamydia is protected from host-derived rovar are really of particular importance as zoonotic lysozymes. It has been found (which would destroy the engulfed organism) is in- that the different serovars do not only occcur in the hibited by chlamydial-derived proteins. Chlamydia has a tion of the metabolically inert elementary body into genus-specific lipoglycoprotein with an acid polysac- the large (0. Several proteinaceous an- cation cycle probably begins with the reduction of the tigens, including the major outer membrane protein, disulfide bond that cross links the outer membrane can show subspecies or even strain-specific variabil- proteins. The cause they can persist in spite of circulating antibod- most important virulence factor is a toxin, which ies and therapeutics designed to inhibit cellular wall occurs with various degrees of intensity in the differ- formation. The growth and binary fission of the reticu- growth in a particular avian host, metabolic and late bodies result in the production of many progeny structural changes occur that can alter its patho- and micro-colonies containing from 100 to 500 chlamy- genicity and antigenicity. By the end of the are formed during the replication cycle contains het- replication cycle, enzymes produced by the intracel- erologous “new” antigens, which are assumed to be lular parasite may induce lysis of the host cell (48 host-specific. These enzymes are tine stations, breeding farms, multispecies aviaries, susceptible to antibiotics. Endotoxicosis may occur in pet shops) of chlamydia can change the physico- the host cell when lysosomes are destroyed and en- chemical properties and, therefore, the antigenic dosomatic enzymes are released into the cytoplasm. Maturation of the noninfectious reticulate the newly acquired characteristics are not truly sta- bodies into infectious elementary bodies involves the ble. Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide The outcome of an infection is dependent on the ratio is brought to the host cell surface concomitantly with of elementary bodies to macrophages. Mature inclusion body densely packed with progeny reticulate bodies and elementary bodies. The reticulate body ap- pears to be oriented to permit penetration of its surface projec- tions through the inclusion membrane into the eukaryotic cytoplasm (arrow); x 48,000. Low doses that between 30 and 70% of the birds tested are of a virulent strain are rapidly inactivated by infected. If the macrophage is damaged, the chances of the Transmission chlamydial organism to survive are reduced. Low doses of a nonvirulent strain do not stimulate an Elementary bodies present in feather dust and dried appropriate lytic reaction, resulting in macrophages feces are primarily dispersed through air circulation. Vertical transmission life span of these epithelioid cells should govern the through the egg has been documented in domesti- duration of antibiotic treatment. However, nothing is cated ducks,32,47 Black-headed Gulls32 and budgeri- known about the longevity of these transformed cells gars,44 and has been suggested in turkeys. Incomplete autosteriliza- in the feces (up to 105 infectious units per gram of tion and phagocytosis into “new” macrophages favor feces), urine, lacrimal fluid, nasal discharge, mucous the selection of strains with low virulence for the from the oral and pharyngeal cavities and “crop milk” species in question. Insufficient information is shedding of large numbers of chlamydia that might available to establish the periods during which birds be highly virulent for other avian species. Stability of Chlamydia The infectious elementary bodies, which can be Cockatiels are frequent carriers of chlamydia and stained as described by Giemsa, Gimenez, Stamp, can shed the agent in the feces for more than one year Macchiavello or Castaneda, can survive outside the following an active infection. Infected ducks have host (protected by proteinaceous material) and inside been shown to shed chlamydia in the feces for 100 host cells for several weeks (see Color 10). Bacterial- days, and harbor the organism on the nasal mucosa induced destruction of tissues and the presence of for 170 days. Chlamydia is this theory cannot be substantiated using improved particularly sensitive to heat and one percent for- methods of chlamydial detection. Quaternary ers may begin to shed the organism following a ammonium compounds and lipid solvents are poor stressful event. Infectivity has tion of infections within a flock during a four- to been shown to be destroyed within minutes by ben- five-month period cannot be confirmed. As a rule, infected birds, cattle, sheep and goats readily trans- the organism is well adapted to avian hosts and mit chlamydia to other members of the same species. A newly imported Amazon parrot with chlamydiosis Clinical disease is precipitated mainly by human-in- was thought to have infected a cat that was restricted duced conditions and procedures. However, surveys of imported and domes- There are considerable differences between the sus- tically bred Psittaciformes as well as free-ranging ceptibility of various host species to chlamydia. Similar differences are described with varying chlamydial strains in the same host spe- These interactions of the host immune system and cies. Macaws and Amazon parrots tion times, clinical signs and pathology noted with chlamydial infections. These are generalizations with many excep- adjacent serosal membranes can lead to polyserosi- tis, including pericarditis. Given the high number of birds with anti- often fatal illness in young birds or with nonhost- bodies to chlamydia, most primary infections must adapted chlamydial strains. The precondition for occur without the development of obvious clinical such an adaptation is a latent infection of some time signs. The amount of antitoxic strains can be most dramatic when they infect a 19,28 antibodies seems too low to induce some immunity. The surface of the elemen- tary bodies contains hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic components that disappear once the organism enters the host cell. The toxins are once again a factor following replication and release of progeny elemen- tary bodies from the host cell. These toxins present on the elementary bodies induce the production of antibodies that neutralize the toxins and destroy infectivity.
Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and C-reactive protein discount famvir 250 mg free shipping. Long-term effects of a plant-based dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on blood pressure generic famvir 250 mg online. Atorvastatin decreases the coenzyme Q10 level in the blood of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke discount 250 mg famvir fast delivery. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Beneﬁcial effects of viscous dietary ﬁber from konjac-mannan in subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome: results of a controlled metabolic trial. Dietary ﬁber and C-reactive protein: ﬁndings from national health and nutrition examination survey data. Role of prescription omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid dose-dependently reduce fasting serum triglycerides. Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inﬂammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term beneﬁt with niacin. Pronounced lowering of serum levels of lipoprotein Lp(a) in hyperlipidaemic subjects treated with nicotinic acid. Lipoprotein responses to treatment with lovastatin, gemﬁbrozil, and nicotinic acid in normolipidemic patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Comparison of extended-release niacin and atorvastatin monotherapies and combination treatment of the atherogenic lipid profile in diabetes mellitus. Effect of low-dose niacin on glucose control in patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Effects of extended-release niacin on lipoprotein particle size, distribution, and inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease. A comparison of the efﬁcacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies on the effects of extended-release niacin in women. The role of nicotinic acid and inositol hexaniacinate as anticholesterolemic and antilipemic agents. Impact of margarine enriched with plant sterols on blood lipids, platelet function, and fibrinogen level in young men. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemias. Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. Pantethine, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis: clinical study of 1045 patients. Inﬂuence of pantethine on platelet volume, microviscosity, lipid composition and functions in diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia. Allicin release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions from garlic powder tablets employed in clinical trials on serum cholesterol. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Etiology and treatment of urticaria: diagnosis, prevention and treatment of poison-ivy dermatitis. The relation of hydrochloric acid and vitamin B complex deﬁciency in certain skin diseases. An assessment of the role of Candida albicans and food yeast in chronic urticaria. Cyanocobalamin (B12): Comparison of aqueous and repository preparations in urticaria; possible mode of action. Syndrome of idiopathic chronic urticaria and angioedema with thyroid autoimmunity: a study of 90 patients. Increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis after iodine supplementation in an iodine sufficient area. Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Blood glucose measurements during symptomatic episodes in patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia. Undiagnosed asymptomatic hypoglycemia: diet, insulin, and glyburide for gestational diabetic pregnancy. Patients with bona ﬁde meal-related hypoglycemia should be treated primarily with dietary restriction of reﬁned carbohydrate. Insulin resistance after glucose tolerance testing in patients with major depression. Diet and crime: an empirical examination of the value of nutrition in the control and treatment of incarcerated juvenile offenders. An empirical evaluation of 3,000 incarcerated juveniles in Stanislaus County Juvenile Hall. Studies of glucose tolerance, insulin and growth hormone secretion during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. Metabolic changes induced by sugar in relation to coronary heart disease and diabetes. Relationship of glucose tolerance and plasma insulin to the incidence of coronary heart disease: results from two population studies in Finland. The oral glucose tolerance test in men under 55 years of age with intermittent claudication. Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Chromium and other insulin sensitizers may enhance glucagon secretion: implications for hypoglycemia and weight control. Environmental and behavioral determinants of fasting plasma glucose in women: a matched co-twin analysis. Experience with routine thyroid function testing: abnormal results in “normal” populations. Hypothyroidism and depression, evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation. The incidence of ischemic heart disease and mortality in people with subclinical hypothyroidism: reanalysis of the Whickham Survey cohort. Clinical, biochemical and nutritional spectrum of zinc deﬁciency in human subjects: an update. Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency.
It indicated that both extracts and ethyl gallate have anti-muscarinic activity as atropine and tolazoline and they also have anti-histamine activity very similar to that of chlorpheniramine discount famvir 250mg line. May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Ohnmar Ko; Myint Myint Khine; San San Myint; Nu Nu Win; Mar Mar Nyein buy famvir 250 mg online. In order to combat the problems of diarrhoea globally order famvir 250mg online, World Health Organization has given a special emphasis on the use of traditional medicines in management of diarrhoea. It thus becomes important to evaluate commonly available natural drugs as alternative to currently used anti-diarrhoeal drugs. The aim is to evaluate in vivo and in vitro antidiarrhoeal activity of reputed Mango seed kernel. In vivo the anti- diarrhoeal activity of aqueous extracts were carried out using castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in mice with the standard loperamide. Like loperamide, a single oral dose of its extract produced significant reduction in fecal out put and onset of diarrhoea (p<0. May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Myint Myint Khine; Phyu Phyu Win; San San Myint; Nu Nu Win; Ohnmar Tun, Naw. In order to combat the problems of diarrhoea globally, the World Health Organization encouraged studies for the treatment of diarrhoea diseases with herbs. It thus becomes important to evaluate commonly available nature drugs as alternative to currently used antidiarrhoeal drugs. The study was carried out to evaluated acute toxicity, phytochemical, and antidiarrhoeal activity of Swertia angustifolia. Acute toxicity study showed that there was no toxic effect even with maximum permissible dose of 24g/kg. In vivo antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts (3, 6, 12g/kg single oral doses) were carried out using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice with standard loperamide. Like loperamide, all doses of extract produced significant reduction in fecal output and prolongation in onset of diarrhoea (p<0. To understand the mechanism of action, it is also evaluated castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility (intestinal-transit) and intestinal fluid accumulation. The extract and loperamide also significantly reduced the castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation (anti-secretory effect) (p<0. Antibacterial activity screening of aqueous extracts against 9 types of pathogenic microorganisms was carried out by employing agar disc diffusion method. These results indicated their potential usefulness in infected diarrhoea with these three organisms. In conclusion, aqueous extract of Swertia angustifolia revealed the antidiarrhoeal effect and potential utility in both infected and non-infected diarrhoea states. Zaw Myo Tint; May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Win Win Maw; Myint Myint Khine; San San Myint; Aung Aung Maw. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemicals, acute toxicity and antidiaharrhoeal activity of 70% ethanolic extract of fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Phytochemicals test showed present of alkaloid, glycoside, reducing sugar, steroid/terpenes, flavonoid, polyphenol and tannin. In-vitro antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated by (1) castor oil-induced diarrhoea test (onset of defecation and number of stools passed), (2) castor oil-induced enteropooling test (weight/volume of accumulated fluid) and (3) castor oil-induced small intestinal transit (passage of charcoal meal). The percent inhibition of intestinal transit was significantly increased standard group (p<0. Evaluation of bioactive organic compounds and antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro methods of Vitis vinifera Linn. Among them, grape seeds and pomegranate seeds have been reported to provide superior antioxidant activity than vitamin C and vitamin E. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant activity from the seeds of locally cultivated Vitis vinifera Linn. In the present work, on silica gel column chromatographic separation a triterpenoid compound: ursolic acid (A, 0. These results were indicative that phenolic compounds of catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid showed good antioxidant power and riterpenoid ursolic acid has low antioxidant property than standard antioxidant vitamin E and vitamin C. Consequently, it can be inferred that catechin, epicatechin and gallic acid are very powerful antioxidants and they are more effective than vitamin C, and ursolic acid has lower anti-oxidant effect than vitamin C. According to this acute toxicity test, there is no acute toxic effects occurred in Grape seeds as well as Pomegranate seeds at maximum permissible dose of 16g/kg b. It was investigated that, Grape and Pomegranate seeds extract showed higher potency activity than isolated compounds in antioxidant activity, because it may be due to the most active compounds that are concentrated in crude extracts. Both Grape and Pomegranate seed extracts showed comparable antioxidant power in in vivo and in vitro methods. It is evident that, Grape and Pomegranate seeds extracts contain high level of antiradical phytochemical constituents and they could used as the free radical scavengers to prevent the oxidative damage of diseases. From the present result obtained, chief sources of two locally cultivated Grape and Pomegranate seeds could be safely used as anti-oxidative agents for the treatment of diseases caused by free radicals. Twelve indigenous plant extracts were tested on 5 strains of Escherichia coli, three strains of Shigellae, and one strain each of Klebsiella aeruginosa, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Proteus morganii, Pseudomonas pyocyanes, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae for in vitro study. Of the 12 indigenous plant extracts tested, Ageratum conyzoides (Hkwathaipan) was active on four species of tested bacteria; Coleus aromaticus (Ziyaywetthu) on six bacteria species; Cuminum cyminum (Ziyasai) on two bacteria species; Embilica officinalis (Zibyuthee) on 11 bacteria species; Foeniculum vulgare (Samonsaba) on 1 bacteria specie; Nyctanthes arbortristis (Seikphaluywet) on six bacteria species; Piper betle (Kunywet) on 14 bacteria species; Piper nigrum (Ngayokkaungsai) on five bacteria species; Terminalia chebula (Pangathee) on 11 bacteria species; Vinca rosea (Thinbawmahnyoywet) on 5 bacteria species. Staphylococcus aureus strain was artifically infected on open wounds in experimental rats and topical application of plant extracts in paraffin was applied for in Nyctanthes arbor-tristis accelerated the rate of wound healing without formation of pus. The purpose of the investigation is to study the anti-asthmatic effect of some traditional medicinal plant extracts which are claimed for their therapeutic values in the treatment of asthma in Myanmar. The efficacy and mechanism of action of five reputed bronchodilating traditional medicinal plant extracts were studied on the in vitro guinea-pig tracheal chain model. Since this study indicated that the relaxant action found was neither mediated through antihistaminic effect nor anti 5 hydroxytrytamine effects, it may probably act through direct relaxant action on the tracheal smooth muscle. Experimental evaluation of biological and anti-mycobacterial activities of medicinal plants. Khin Chit; Win Myint; Ti Ti; Kyi Thein; Win Win Maw; Mar Mar Myint; Kyaw Myint; Aye Aye Thein; Aye Than; Myo Khin. Anti-mycobacterial activity of plant extracts were evaluated by in vitro screening. Chemical screening of the active plant extracts was also conducted by standard procedures described for the detection of organic constituents. Some of the plant extracts were found to have antimycobacterial activity even on strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin. This was important preliminary information for the use of natural products in the treatment of tuberculosis. Experimental screening for anti-peptic ulcer activity of some Myanmar traditional medicine formulations.
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