By L. Ayitos. University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. 2018.
The volatile oil clomipramine 50 mg cheap, tea tree oil clomipramine 10mg amex, which is extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia cheap clomipramine 10mg, is widely promoted as an antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal agent, and is included in numerous cleaning and cosmetic products, as are the oils of many Eucalyptus species. The kangaroo apple bush, Solanum aviculare, is a source of alkaloids related to the steroids produced in the Mexican yam, and which could also become a viable source of the starting materials for oral contraceptive synthesis. These commercial successes, together with the increasing trend in western society to utilise herbal medicines, has revived interest in Australia’s flora and traditional herbal medicine history. A systematic search of infor- mation in Australia’s Northern Territory about Aboriginal use of plants led in 1988 to the compilation of the first Aboriginal pharmacopoeia of the Northern Territories. More recent research has compared the efficacy of certain traditional remedies with western preparations used for the same conditions, and has found them to be at least as effective, especially when used to treat skin problems such as boils and other general surface infections. As traditional remedies are often more acceptable than western ones to some Aboriginal communities, such medi- cines may be used to improve the often very poor general health of people in these communities. It is ironic that a people whose culture is so ancient and who live in a country with a flora that is at least potentially so medicinally active should have such poor health that their life expectancy is almost 20 years less than that of ‘immigrant’ Australians. One of several strategies being employed to help reduce this inequity has been the recent introduction of support for traditional healers and other Aboriginal health workers in Aboriginal communities. The hope is that their use of a combination of traditional and western medicine will help promote a greater sense of ownership, pride and thus self-worth in the people of these communities, and thus ultimately better general health. Fiji It is difficult to determine which of Fiji’s flora are indigenous and which introduced by its human inhabitants. The forest plants seem, however, to be the oldest surviving species while later ones appear to include most of the Traditional medicines in the Pacific | 279 food and medicinally active species. Many of these are not specific to Fiji but are found throughout tropical regions in south-east Asia and the Pacific. Those used by the Indo-Fijian population are generally the ones favoured by the ayurvedic tradition of medicine (discussed in Chapter 7). The health of pre-European Fijians appears to have been generally good, although diseases such as yaws, filariasis, malaria and other fever-producing conditions were recorded. Post-European settlement, however, the Fijians suffered from imported diseases such as gonorrhoea, diphtheria and measles, so much so in fact that it was feared that the population might even die out completely. Early Europeans could obtain little information about plants used as medicines by the local population. One such person writing in the 1860s complained that the women who seemed to have knowledge of medi- cinally useful plants could not be induced to part with this knowledge because it was a source of income for them. Minor problems such as coughs and colds, headaches or earache, other- wise known as mate vayano, were just accidental occurrences that were thus responsive to physical treatments whereas mate ni vanua, ‘diseases of the land’ were due to spirit interference and as such could be treated only much more rigorously, usually with the assistance of sorcerers (dauvakatevoro) as well as those who had knowledge of the medicinal plants required. The cere- monies involved in treating such conditions, similar to many other ceremo- nial occasions in Fiji, usually included the use of infusions of yaqona, a drink prepared from the powdered root of the kava plant (Piper methysticum). This drink is a mild sedative which is said to be effective in the treatment of many different conditions, ranging from coughs and colds to filariasis10 (Figure 10. Leaves and bark were frequently used, generally by soaking in hot or boiling water. Sometimes, as above, the root and stem would be used as the medicine and might be crushed before extraction to provide a stronger preparation. Leaves could be chewed and their ‘juices’ swallowed or the saliva-softened product used as a poultice. Pastes and ointments were also prepared, by mixing powdered plant material with a little water or coconut oil, respectively. Vesi (Intsia bijuga) is a coastal tree that grows to a height of about 12 metres which has spreading branches that were used to make the traditional 280 | Traditional medicine Figure 10. It was considered to be a sacred tree so medicines prepared from it were thought to be very efficacious (against mate ni vanua as well as mate vayano illnesses). Decoctions of powdered bark or the juice expressed from the inner bark is used to treat the aches and pains of rheumatism whereas the steamed and thus softened bark is used to immobilise and heal bone frac- tures. Other parts of the plant are used to treat respiratory disorders such as asthma as well as milder colds (and a decoction of leaves was thought to drive out unwanted spirits). Its stems and leaves are used to treat diarrhoea and urinary problems (just as were water-related Aboriginal plants). Leaves and leaf buds are also used to treat eye problems, both injury and age related. Other problems for which the plant has been claimed to be effective are a range of skin conditions, including infected wounds, boils and infestation with scabies. It has also been used for contraception, irregular or painful periods, and infertility. Niu (Cocos nucifera) is familiar to us in imagination at least as the coconut palm that is the most common coastal tree of Fiji and other South Pacific islands. The nut itself is crushed for its oil and the liquid inside used as a ‘milk’ drink or the starting material for an alcoholic drink known as ‘palm toddy’. Coconut oil is used alone as a massage oil and is also incorporated into ointments with other ingredients. Used as massage oil, it is said to relieve the aches and pains of rheumatism, pregnancy and exercise-induced over- exertion of muscles. Its emollient properties, when used either alone or with other ingredients, are promoted in many different cosmetic preparations. Coconut milk is used to treat mothers whose breast milk is too yellow and is recommended to be drunk frequently and in large quantities by people with blackwater fever (other examples of similia similibus perhaps? Wabosucu (Mikania micrantha) is known colloquially as ‘mile a minute’ because of the speed at which this creeping plant can grow. The juice of the leaves is a popular remedy for cuts and bruises; crushed leaves relieve the pain of wasp and other insect stings, and a poultice of leaves is used to treat boils, especially those that are located in the armpits. Yaqona, kava (Piper methysticum), is cultivated as both a garden and commercial plant in Fiji. Its use as a mild, sedative narcotic in ceremonial occasions, including the treatment of mate ni vanua, has already been mentioned but it is also used medicinally for a wide range of everyday condi- tions such as coughs and colds, headaches and sore throats, as well as for more unpleasant conditions such as filariasis. Present day: kava – a case study Kava has been used in Fiji and other Pacific islands for generations and had not excited any controversy until its sedative and mild anxiolytic properties were recognised by westerners who began using kava products provided by herbal medicine companies. A number of spontaneously reported cases of liver damage associated with kava use were reported in several European countries from the late 1990s,11 the upshot being that the German Federal 282 | Traditional medicine Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices banned its use in that country. Regulatory authorities in other countries were less confident of a link between kava and liver disorders. New Zealand, for example, accepted the advice of its expert advisers and did not withdraw kava from general sale. Although the debate has not yet ended, the picture that is emerging is of a twofold problem with kava’s non-traditional compared with traditional use. Kava use in Pacific countries such as Fiji generally follows well-established procedures in which the root of the plant is powdered and extracted with water and the resulting beverage drunk. The kava products used in non-traditional societies were often prepared from the leaves and stem peelings of the kava plant,13 and the resulting extracts ingested by people who might also be using other medi- cines that were themselves potentially hepatotoxic. The sedative activity of kava appears to be related to its kavalactones, most of which are concentrated in its roots.
It functions to generate change either in the form of seeking help or avoiding activity cheap clomipramine 75mg overnight delivery. Some pain seems to have no underlying cause and functions to hinder rather than to help a person carry on with their lives clomipramine 25 mg for sale. In contrast chronic pain lasts for longer than six months and can be either benign in that it varies in severity or progressive in that it gets gradually worse order clomipramine 10 mg on-line. Chronic low back pain is often described as chronic benign pain whereas illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis result in chronic progressive pain. Most of the research described in this chapter is concerned with chronic pain which shows an important role for psychological factors. Descartes, perhaps the earliest writer on pain, regarded pain as a response to a painful stimulus. Von Frey (1895) developed the speciﬁcity theory of pain, which again reﬂected this very simple stimulus–response model. He suggested that there were speciﬁc sensory receptors which transmit touch, warmth and pain, and that each receptor was sensitive to speciﬁc stimulation. This model was similar to that described by Descartes in that the link between the cause of pain and the brain was seen as direct and automatic. In a similar vein, Goldschneider (1920) developed a further model of pain called the pattern theory. He suggested that nerve impulse patterns determined the degree of pain and that messages from the damaged area were sent directly to the brain via these nerve impulses. Therefore these three models of pain describe pain in the following ways: s Tissue damage causes the sensation of pain. Psychogenic pain was considered to be ‘all in the patient’s mind’ and was a label given to pain when no organic basis could be found. Organic pain was regarded as being ‘real pain’ and was the label given to pain when some clear injury could be seen. However, psychology came to play an important part in understanding pain through the twentieth century. This was based on several observations: First, it was observed that medical treatments for pain (e. This suggested that there must be something else involved in the pain sensation which was not included in the simple stimulus response models. It was also observed that individuals with the same degree of tissue damage diﬀered in their reports of the painful sensation and/or painful responses. Beecher (1956) observed soldiers’ and civilians’ requests for pain relief in a hospital during the Second World War. He reported that although soldiers and civilians often showed the same degree of injury, 80 per cent of the civilians requested medication, whereas only 25 per cent of the soldiers did. He suggested that this reﬂected a role for the meaning of the injury in the experience of pain; for the soldiers, the injury had a positive meaning as it indicated that their war was over. This pain can actually get worse after the amputation, and continues even after complete healing. Sometimes the pain can feel as if it is spreading and is often described as a hand being clenched with the nails digging into the palm (when the hand is missing) or the bottom of the foot being forced into the ankle (when the foot is missing). Phantom limb pain has no peripheral physical basis because the limb is obviously missing. In addition, not everybody feels phantom limb pain and those who do, do not experience it to the same extent. Further, even individuals who are born with missing limbs sometimes report phantom limb pain. It suggested that although pain could still be understood in terms of a stimulus–response pathway, this pathway was complex and mediated by a network of interacting processes. Input to the gate Melzack and Wall suggested that a gate existed at the spinal cord level, which received input from the following sources: s Peripheral nerve ﬁbres. The brain sends information related to the psychological state of the individual to the gate. I have experienced this pain before and know that it will go away) in terms of dealing with the pain. Output from the gate The gate integrates all of the information from these diﬀerent sources and produces an output. This output from the gate sends information to an action system, which results in the perception of pain. This change in terminology reﬂects the role of the individual in the degree of pain experienced. The individual no longer just responds passively to painful stimuli, but actively interprets and appraises this painful stimuli. Variation in pain perception is understood in terms of the degree of opening or closing of the gate. It could, therefore, be argued that within this model, pain is never totally either organic or psychogenic. Melzack and Wall (1965, 1982) suggest that several factors can open the gate: s physical factors, such as injury or activation of the large ﬁbres; s emotional factors, such as anxiety, worry, tension and depression; s behavioural factors, such as focusing on the pain or boredom. It introduced a role for psychology and described a multidimensional process rather than a simple linear one. First, although there is plenty of evidence illustrating the mechanisms to increase and decrease pain perception, no one has yet actually located the gate itself. This integration of physiological and psychological factors can explain individual variability and phantom limb pain to an extent, but, because the model still assumes some organic basis it is still based around a simple stimulus response process. The model suggests that physical processes are inﬂuenced by the psychological processes, but that these two sets of processes are distinct. The components of this model are: physio- logical processes, subjective-aﬀective-cognitive processes and behavioural processes. Physiological processes involve factors such as tissue damage, the release of endorphins and changes in heart rate. The subjective-aﬀective-cognitive and behavioural processes are illustrated in Figure 12. As described by theories of associative learning, an individual may associate a particular environment with the experience of pain. For example, if an individual associates the dentist with pain due to past experience, the pain perception may be enhanced when attending the dentist due to this expectation. In addition, because of the association between these two factors, the individual may experience increased anxiety when attending the dentist, which may also increase pain. Jamner and Tursky (1987) examined the eﬀect of presenting migraine suﬀerers with words associated with pain. They found that this presentation increased both anxiety and pain perception and con- cluded that the words caused a change in mood, which caused a change in the subject’s perception of pain. Operant conditioning Research suggests that there is also a role for operant conditioning in pain perception.
What intellectual purchase clomipramine 10mg without prescription, technical discount clomipramine 50mg on-line, interpersonal quality 75 mg clomipramine, and/or ethical/legal competencies are most she’d rather quit than start taking on additional duties. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Which of the following statements concerning Circle the letter that corresponds to the best respiratory rates is accurate? The respiratory rate decreases in response to the increased metabolic rate during c. Which of the following is the primary mecha- lates the respiratory center and increases nism or site of heat loss? The average normal temperature in degrees Fahrenheit for well adults in the rectal site is d. Low blood volume 2 F higher in the early morning than in the late afternoon and early evening. After taking vital signs, you write down your is increased, the hypothalamus initiates ﬁndings as T 98. Which of the following are accurate steps when assessing body temperature by various a. When assessing an oral temperature with Multiple Response Questions an electronic thermometer, place the probe beneath the patient’s tongue in the Circle the letters that correspond to the best posterior sublingual pocket. Which of the following are normal variations an electronic thermometer, lubricate in vital signs that occur at various ages? Normal respirations for a 6- to 8-year-old center of the axilla and bring the patient’s are 15 to 25. Normal pulse for a person older than ter in place in the assessment site until you 70 years is 80 to 180. Normal respirations for a 10-year-old are more than oral temperatures and rectal 20 to 40. Thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid stimulation by the vagus nerve increases gland, decreases metabolism and heat the heart rate, and sympathetic stimulation production. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. The highest pressure is the systolic felt over a peripheral artery or heard over pressure; the lowest pressure is the the apex of the heart in 30 seconds. The difference between the systolic pressure when blood volume is decreased due to and diastolic pressure is known as the pulse hemorrhage, the heart rate increases in amplitude. The normal pulse rate ranges from 60 to artery simultaneously may assess the apical- 100 beats/minute. Which of the following guidelines would be cardiac ﬁlling time, which in turn increases implemented when properly assessing a stroke volume and cardiac output. Have the forearm supported below the level describe the factors controlling respirations? Tachypnea occurs in response to a so that the lower edge of the cuff is about decreased metabolic rate during pyrexia. During bradypnea, a decrease in intracranial pressure depresses the respiratory center, d. Check that a mercury manometer is in the resulting in irregular or shallow breathing, horizontal position and the mercury is in slow breathing, or both. Dyspneic people can often breathe more clear sound that slowly increases in inten- easily in a prone position, a condition sity; note this number as the diastolic known as orthopnea. Maximum blood pressure is exerted on the patient with a stroke volume of 75 mL and a walls of arteries when the right ventricle of heart rate of 70 beats/minute would be the heart pushes blood through the aortic. The bladder width and length (in centimeters) that would typically be used on a child with b. Blood pressure rises as the ventricle an arm circumference of 20 cm would be contracts and falls as the heart relaxes. The continuous contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle creates a pressure wave 3. A number that would describe the pulse that is transmitted through the arterial amplitude for a weak pulse would be system. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Number of pulsations felt in a minute dioxide between the circulating blood and tissue cells 2. Quality of the pulse in terms of fullness; reﬂects strength of left ventricular 19. Periods during which there is no aorta sending a wave through the walls breathing of the arterial system 21. Heart rate below 60 beats/minute in an variations in Part B with the appropriate term adult listed in Part A. Expiration Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Complete the table below describing the types of thermometers used to assess body temperature. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Describe the use of the following equipment the pulse by palpating or auscultating. Then practice the technique for measuring respirations and assessing blood pressure. Using a mannequin in your nursing laboratory, practice taking oral, rectal, and d. Research any new Ventilation: devices for taking temperature, and familiarize yourself with their use. Altered Tissue Perfusion: Use the following expanded scenario from Chapter 24 in your textbook to answer the b. Scenario: Noah Shoolin is a 2-year-old who is brought to the emergency department by his c. His mother says he has been running a high fever and has refused to take food or ﬂuids for the past 24 hours. Fluid Volume Deﬁcit: attempt to obtain a tympanic temperature, the child begins to scream uncontrollably, crying and pushing the device away from e. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, the nurse’s attempt to assess a tympanic and/or ethical/legal competencies are most temperature?
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