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Precautons Severe cardiovascular disorders cheap benadryl 25mg on line, cardiac rhythm abnormalites buy benadryl 25mg lowest price, seizure disorder buy 25 mg benadryl fast delivery, dia- betes, thyrotoxicosis, hypokalemia, pulmo- nary tuberculosis, pregnancy (Appendix 7c), lactaton, interactons (Appendix 6c). Adverse Efects Headache, pharyngits, throat irritaton, upper respiratory tract infectons, pneumonia, bronchits, oral candidiasis, nausea, vomitng, diarrhea, chest pain, musculoskeletal pain, back pain, allergic reactons, wheezing, cough, skin rash, tremors, paradoxical bronchospasm, insomnia, adrenal suppression. Storage Store protected from light and moisture at a temperature not exceeding 30⁰C. Dose Aerosol inhalaton Adult- Metered dose inhaler; 20 to 40 µg, in early treatment up to 80 µg at a tme, 3 to 4 tmes daily. Adverse Efects Occasionally dry mouth; constpaton; angina; tremors; palpitaton; nasal congeston. Mometasone Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Dermatoses, prophylaxis and treatment of allergic rhinits, nasal polyps, prophylaxis of asthma. Precautons Hepatc and renal disease; myasthenia gravis, cardiovascular disease; ocular diseases; osteoporosis, glucocortcosteroid insufciency; discontnue if irritaton or sensitzaton occurs; interactons (Appendix 6c); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Adrenal suppression; immunosuppression; anaphylaxis; musculoskeletal pain; depression; fatigue; sinusitis; oropharyngeal infections; upper respiratory tract infection; gastrointestinal disturbances; conjuctivitis; otitis media; local irritation and sensitization; bacterial skin infection; skin depigmentation; cataract; growth suppression. Child- 2-5yrs: 4 mg once daily; 6-14 yrs: 5 mg once daily; ≥ 15 yrs: 10 mg once daily. Adverse Efects Headache; rashes; eosinophilia; neuropathy; Churg-strauss syndrome. Salbutamol* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Prophylaxis and treatment of asthma; premature labour; reversible airway obstructon. Dose Oral Adult- Chronic asthma (when inhalaton is inefectve): 2 to 4 mg, 3 or 4 tmes daily; in some patents up to max. Child- Chronic asthma (when inhalaton is inefectve): under 2 years; 100 µg/kg, 4 tmes daily. Slow intravenous injecton Adult- Severe acute bronchospasm: 250 µg, repeated if necessary. Child- Relief of acute bronchospasm: 100 µg (1 puf) increased to 200 µg (2 pufs); if necessary. Aerosol inhalaton Adult- Prophylaxis of exercise-induced bronchospasm: 200 µg (2 pufs). Chronic asthma (as adjunct in stepped treatment): 100 to 200 µg (1 to 2 pufs), up to 3 to 4 tmes daily. Child- Prophylaxis of exercise-induced bronchospasm: 100 µg (1 puf) increased to 200 µg (2 pufs); if required. Chronic asthma (as adjunct in stepped treatment): 100 µg (1 puf) 3 to 4 tmes daily, increased to 200 µg (2 pufs) 3 to 4 tmes daily; if necessary. Inhalaton of nebulized soluton Adult- Severe acute asthma or chronic bronchospasm unresponsive to conventonal treatment: 2. Child- Severe acute asthma or chronic bronchospasm unresponsive to conventonal treatment, over 18 months: 2. Under 18 months: clinical efcacy uncertain (transient hypoxaemia may occur- consider oxygen supplementaton). Contraindicatons β2agonists are contraindicated in cardiac disease; antepartum haemorrhage; intrauterine infecton; intrauterine fetal death; placenta praevia; abrupto placenta; threatened miscarriage; cord compression; eclampsia or severe pre-eclampsia; diabetes mellitus; thyrotoxicosis. Adverse Efects Hypokalaemia afer high doses; arrhythmias; tachycardia; palpitatons; peripheral vasodi- laton; fne tremor (usually hands); muscle cramps; headache; insomnia; behavioural disturbances in children; hypersensitvity reactons including paradoxical bronchos- pasm; urtcaria and angioedema; slight pain on intramuscular injecton. Storage Store protected from light and moisture at a temperature not exceeding 30⁰C. Dose Oral Adult- Chronic asthma (as tablets): 100 to 200 mg, 3 to 4 tmes daily afer food. Nocturnal asthma (as modifed-release tablets): total daily requirement as single evening dose. Child- Chronic asthma (as tablets); over 12 years: 100 to 200 mg, 3 to 4 tmes daily afer food. Child- Acute severe asthma; by slow intravenous injecton (over at least 20 min): 5 mg/kg. Note: Patents taking oral theophylline (or aminophylline) should not normally receive intravenous aminophylline unless plasma-theophylline concentraton is available to guide dosage and vice versa. Contraindicatons Porphyria; known hypersensitvity to ethylenediamine (for aminophylline). Precautons Cardiac disease; hypertension; hyperthy- roidism; peptc ulcer; epilepsy; hepatc impairment; pregnancy (Appendix 7c); lacta- ton (Appendix 7b); elderly; fever; smokers may require larger or more frequent doses; interactons (6b, 6c). Adverse Efects Nausea vomitng and other gastrointestnal disturbances; restlessness; anxiety; tremor; palpitatons; headache; insomnia; dizziness; convulsions; arrhythmias and hypotension- especially if given by rapid injecton; urtcaria; erythema and exfoliatve dermatts-resultng from hypersensitvity to ethylenediamine component of aminophylline; neurotoxicity; hypokalemia; metabolic acidosis; gastrointestnal haemorrhage. It is helpful in the expulsion of respiratory secreton and other foreign partcles from respiratory tract. Non-productve cough should be suppressed, whereas productve cough should not be suppressed. Contraindicatons Patents at risk of developing respiratory failure; persistent or chronic cough; patents receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (with or within 2 weeks). Precautons Moderate/severe renal impairment; liver disease, atopic children; patents confned to supine positon; debilitated patents; third trimester of pregnancy (Appendix 7c); asthma; interactons (Appendix 6a, 6c). Adverse efects Dependency; dizziness; restlessness; mental confusion; excitaton; gastrointestnal disturbance. Combined Oral Contraceptves: Estrogen plus progestogen combinatons are the most widely used hormonal contraceptves. They produce a contracep- tve efect mainly by suppressing the hypothalamic-pituitary system resultng in preventon of ovulaton; in additon, changes in the endometrium make it unreceptve to implanta- ton. Endometrial proliferaton is usually followed by thinning or regression of the endometrium resultng in reduced menstrual fow. Ovulaton usually resumes within three menstrual cycles afer oral contracepton has been discontnued; anovulaton and amenorrhoea persistng for six months or longer requires investgaton and appropriate treatment if necessary. Potental non-contraceptve benefts of combined oral contra- ceptves include improved regularity of the menstrual cycle, decreased blood loss, less iron-defciency anaemia and signif- cant decrease in dysmenorrhoea. Long-term use is associated with reduced risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer and of some pelvic infectons. An associaton between the amount of estrogen and progestogen in oral contraceptves and an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular efects has been observed. The use of oral contraceptve combinatons containing the progestogens, desogestrel or gestodene are associated with a slightly increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with oral contraceptves containing the progestogens, levonorg- estrel or norethisterone. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism or Arterial Disease: Risk factors for venous thromboembolism include family history of venous thromboembolism in frst-degree relatve aged under 45 years, obesity, long-term immobilizaton and varicose veins. If any one of the factors is present, combined oral contra- ceptves should be used with cauton; if 2 or more factors for either venous thromboembolism or arterial disease are present, combined oral contraceptves should be avoided. Combined oral contraceptves are contraindicated in migraine with aura, in severe migraine without aura regularly lastng over 72 h despite treatment and in migraine treated with ergot derivatves. Surgery: Estrogen-containing oral contraceptves should preferably be discontnued (and adequate alternatve contraceptve arrangements made) 4 weeks before major electve surgery and all surgery to the legs or surgery which involves prolonged immobilizaton of a lower limb. They should normally be restarted at the frst menses occuring at least 2 weeks afer full mobilizaton. When discontnuaton is not possible throm- boprophylaxis (with heparin and graduated compression hosiery) is advised.
Subcutaneous buy generic benadryl 25 mg line, intramuscular or intravenous injecton Uncomplicated premature labour: Adult- 5 µg/min for 20min generic 25mg benadryl with mastercard, increased every 20min in steps of 2 generic benadryl 25 mg with amex. Contraindicatons Cardiac disease; antepartum haemorrhage; intrauterine infecton; intrauterine fetal death; placenta praevia; abrupto placenta; threatened miscarriage; cord compression; and eclampsia or severe pre-eclampsia; thyrotoxicosis; toxaemia. Precautons Suspected cardiovascular disease (such patents should be assessed by a cardiologist before initatng therapy), hypertension, mild to moderate pre-eclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and hypokalaemia (partcular risk with potassium-depletng diuretcs). It is important to monitor pulse rate (should not exceed 140 beats per min) and the patent’s fuid and electrolyte status (avoid over- hydraton-discontnue drug immediately and initate diuretc therapy if pulmonary oedema occurs). It should also be used with cauton in diabetes-monitor blood glucose (risk of hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis, especially with intravenous β2 agonist); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Nausea, vomitng; pulmonary oedema; palpitaton; tachycardia, arrhythmias, peripheral vasodilaton; headache, tremor, hyperglycaemia, hypokalaemia, muscle cramps and tension and hypersensitvity reactons (including angioedema, urtcaria, rash, bronchospasm, hypotension, and collapse). They also exert a cardiostmulatory efect which may be the result of a direct acton on the heart. Thyroid hormones are used in hypothyroidism (myxoedema) and also in difuse non-toxic goitre, Hashimoto thyroidits (lymphadenoid goitre) and thyroid carcinoma. Levothyroxine Sodium (thyroxine Sodium) is the treatment of choice for maintenance therapy. It is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestnal tract but the full efects are not seen for up to 1 to 3 weeks afer beginning therapy; there is a slow response to dose change and efects may persist for several weeks afer withdrawal. Dosage of levothy- roxine in infants and children for congenital hypothyroidism and juvenile myxoedema should be ttrated according to clinical response, growth assessment and measurement of plasma thyroxine and thyroid-stmulatng hormone. Antthyroid Drugs: Antthyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil and carbimazole are used in the management of thyrotoxicosis. They are usually well- tolerated, with mild leukopenia or rashes developing in a few percent of cases, usually during the frst 6-8 weeks of therapy. During this tme the blood count should be checked every 2 weeks or if a sore throat or other signs of infecton develop. The drugs are generally given in a high dose in the frst instance untl the patent becomes euthyroid, the dose may then be gradually reduced to a maintenance dose which is contnued for 12-18 months, followed by monitoring to identfy relapse. There is a lag tme of some 2 weeks between the achievement of biochemical euthyroidism and clinical euthyroidism. Beta- adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) (usually propranolol) may be used as a short-term adjunct to antthyroid drugs to control symptoms but their use in heart failure associated with thyrotoxicosis is controversial. Treatment can be given, if neces- sary, in pregnancy but antthyroid drugs cross the placenta and in high doses may cause fetal goitre and hypothyroidism. The lowest dose that will control the hyperthyroid state should be used (requirements in Graves disease tend to fall during preg- nancy). If surgery (partal thyroidectomy) is contemplated, it may be necessary to give iodine for 10 to 14 days in additon to antthyroid drugs to assist control and reduce vascularity of the thyroid. Iodine should not be used for long-term treat- ment since its antthyroid acton tends to diminish. In patents in whom drug therapy fails to achieve long-term remissions defnitve treatment with surgery or (increasingly) radioactve iodine is preferable. Carbimazole* Pregnancy Category-D Schedule H Indicatons Thyrotoxicosis; Grave’s disease. Contraindicatons Nodular goitre; subacute thyroidits, postpartum painless thyroidits. Adverse Efects Nausea, mild gastro-intestnal disturbances; headache; rashes and pruritus, arthralgia; rarely, myopathy, alopecia, bone marrow suppression (including pancytopenia and agranulocytosis); vasculits; cholestatc jaundice, hepatc necrosis. Storage Store protected from light and moisture at a temperature not exceeding 30⁰C. Contraindicatons Lactaton (Appendix 7b), tuberculosis, bron- chits, asthma, hyperkalaemia, acne vulgaris. Adverse Efects Hypersensitvity reactons including coryza- like symptoms; headache; lacrimaton; conjunctvits, pain in salivary glands; laryngits, bronchits, rashes; on prolonged treatment depression, insomnia, impotence; goitre in infants of mothers taking iodides; eosinophilia, hypothyroidism, abdominal pain, arrhythmia. Storage Store in ground glass stoppered container or earthenware container with waxed bungs. Dose Oral Adult- Hypothyroidism: Initally 50 to 100 µg daily (25 to 50 µg for those over 50 years) before breakfast, increased by 25 to 50 µg every 3 to 4 weeks untl normal metabolism maintained (usual maintenance dose, 100 to 200 µg daily); where there is cardiac disease, initally 25 µg daily or 50 µg on alternate days, adjusted in steps of 25 µg every 4 weeks. Child- Congenital hypothyroidism and juvenile myxoedema; Up to 1 month: initally 5 to 10 µg/kg daily. Over 1 month: initally 5 µg/kg daily, adjusted in steps of 25 µg every 2 to 4 weeks, untl mild toxic symptoms appear, then reduce dose slightly. Immunologicals Actve Immunity: Actve immunity may be induced by the administraton of micro-organisms or their products which act as antgens to induce antbodies to confer a protectve immune response in the host. Vaccinaton may consist of (a) a live atenuated form of a virus or bacteria, (b) inactvated preparatons of the virus or bacteria, or (c) extracts of or detoxifed exotoxins. Live atenuated vaccines usually confer immunity with a single dose which is of long duraton. Inactvated vaccines may require a series of injectons in the frst instance to produce an adequate antbody response and in most cases, require reinforcing (booster) doses. Extracts of or detoxifed exotoxins require a primary series of injectons followed by reinforcing doses. Passive Immunity: Passive immunity is conferred by injectng preparatons made from the plasma of immune individuals with adequate levels of antbody to the disease for which protecton is sought. This immunity lasts only a few weeks but passive immunizaton can be repeated where necessary. Sera and Immunoglobulins Antbodies of human origin are usually termed immunoglob- ulins. Because of serum sickness and other allergic-type reactons that may follow injectons of antsera, this therapy has been replaced wherever possible by the use of immunoglobulins. Contraindicatons and Precautons Anaphylaxis, although rare, can occur and epinephrine (adrenaline) must always be immediately available during immunizaton. Immunoglobulins may interfere with the immune response to live virus vaccines which should normally be given either at least 3 weeks before or at least 3 months afer the administra- ton of the immunoglobulin. Intravenous injecton; Systemic reactons including fever, chills, facial fushing, headache and nausea may occur, partc- ularly following high rates of infusion. Ant-D Immunoglobulin (Human): Ant-D immunoglobulin is prepared from plasma with a high ttre of ant-D antbody. It is available to prevent a rhesus- negatve mother from forming antbodies to fetal rhesus- positve cells which may pass into the maternal circulaton. The aim is to protect any subsequent child from the hazard of haemolytc disease of the newborn. It should be administered following any potentally sensitzing episode (for example aborton, miscarriage, stll-birth) immediately or within 72 h of the episode but even if a longer period has elapsed it may stll give protecton and should be used. The dose of ant-D immunoglobulin given depends on the level of exposure to rhesus-positve blood.
Mescaline has also been studied as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic adjunct with psychiatric patients order benadryl 25mg online. Cattell (27) found mescaline to be a useful drug in investigating personality structure buy 25mg benadryl with amex, -121- but of no value in the therapy of psychiatric patients benadryl 25mg without a prescription. New psychodynamic material was gained from the first two groups, but relatively little from the last group. Cattell reasoned that the new material obtained in the mescaline state had been condensed and repressed in the drug-free state. Mescaline in general (63, 65, 66, 110) has been found to produce perceptual distortions and hallucinations, accentuation of affective experiences, and increased psychotic manifestations. In some patients contact and communication were increased and in others decreased. Hoch (63) noted that mescaline in "normals" produced more of an "organic reaction" with some schizophrenic features, as compared to its effect in schizophrenics and latent schizophrenics where mescaline produced more complete schizophrenic disorganization. Hoch also emphasized that mescaline produced a falling off in intellectual functioning. These articles are typical of the reports on the psychopharmacologic effects of mescaline. When interrogators extrapolate clinical psychiatric observations of this kind to the problems of interrogation, mescaline might serve their purposes in attempting to create an atmosphere of fear or terror in the informant and the illusion of magical overpowering omnipotence about himself. After such a transient state has been created, the susceptible informant might be induced subsequently to reveal information. The perceptual and cognitive disturbances produced by the drug make it unsuitable for obtaining undistorted information while the source is under its influence. From the viewpoint of the informant, the creation of a transient psychotic state by the ingestion of mescaline or lysergic acid might offer him some temporary protection against being successfully interrogated. An interrogator is not likely to consider an individual in a psychotic state a suitable candidate for providing reliable and useful information, at least until the drug effect wears off. They noted that the drug transiently increased the mental activity of their patients 30 to 60 rain after ingestion. The effect was a transitory toxic state in which repressed material came forth "sometimes with vivid realism" and emotional expression. Alterations were observed in thinking, speech, emotions, mood, sensation, time perception, ideation, and neurologic signs. The reaction was typical of an exogenous toxic state, simulating a schizophrenic reaction. The reaction was not specific and the extent to which it was dependent on the basic personality was not determined. An interesting, unexplained phenomenon was that only two out of the sixteen cases had the expected bizarre hallucinatory experiences. The conclusions reached on mescaline hold equally for the possible applications of this drug to -123- interrogation. Major Tranquilizers Recently a large number of new compounds with sedative and anxiety-relieving properties have been introduced, sufficiently different from the classical sedatives, such as paraldehyde, chloral hydrate, barbiturates and bromides, to warrant using new terms to describe them. The use of these drugs has revolutionized psychiatric therapeutic procedures, especially within the mental hospitals. A thorough review of their effects and mechanism of action in mental illness would be out of place here. Unfortunately, the usefulness of these tranquilizers in exploring psychologic processes and in facilitating communication has not been very extensively tested. Yet, for the sake of completeness, and to indicate the directions further research might take, the psychologic actions of these drugs deserve mention. Therefore, the psychopharmacologic actions of only this compound are discussed here. Delay and his associates (38) appear to have been the first to explore chlorpromazine in the treatment of mental illness. They found that the effects of chlorpromazine in patients with manic psychoses were somnolence, decreased responses to external and internal stimuli, pleasant indifference, and decreased spontaneity of speech. Subsequent reports (5, 20, 28, 32, 75, 81, 87, 88, 134) have been in agreement that chlorpromazine is effective in quieting or abolishing severe agitation and psychomotor excitement, whether of manic-depressive, schizophrenic, or toxic origin. Most of these reports agree that the basic disorder in these conditions is not -124- altered by the drug. In the psychoneuroses, chlorpromazine was reported (52, 80) to decrease anxiety and tension temporarily, but to have no specific ameliorative effects on conversion symptoms, obsession, piaobia, depression, or physical pain. A recent, controlled investigation (123) on the effect of chlorpromazine on the communication processes of psychiatric patients has indicated no specific facilitating effect. In normal subjects, the effect of 10 mg of proclorperazine (a phenothiazine derivative) was compared with that of 10 mg of phenobarbital. No specific differences were found on tests of mental performance, hearing, and pain perception, although a decrement in muscular coordination and efficiency occurred under proclorperazine (14). Other phenothiazine derivatives are being extensively investigated at this time in psychiatric practice with the hope of finding one with equal or better therapeutic effects and fewer of the side effects of chlorpromazine, such as Parkinsonism, obstructive jaundice, dermatitis, tachycardia, etc. Reserpine, believed to be the most active of the rauwolfia alkaloids, was identified by Müller et al. Initially the drug was used in the United States for treating high blood pressure (133). From such experiences it was noted that reserpine produced a state of calmness without significant impairment of sensory acuity, muscular coordination, and alertness. Repeated doses of reserpine over long periods of time reduced or -125- abolished hyperactivity, combativeness, destructiveness, insomnia, flight of ideas, etc. The tranquilizing action of reserpine and chlorpromazine appears to be quite similar. This similarity extends to some of the side effects, such as miosis, lowering of blood pressure and body temperature, increase in appetite, nasal congestion, and Parkinson syndrome. Although certain differences in side effects do occur, they do not require our attention here. The literature on the effectiveness of reserpine and chlorpromazine as aids to individual (119) and group (34) psychotherapy is extensive. Whereas there is agreement that the drugs lower anxiety and tension, there are such notable differences of opinion about the aims of psychotherapy and about what constitutes psychotherapy that no definite statement can be made regarding this point. If the reviewer were to add his voice to the disharmonious chorus of viewpoints on this subject, he would, on the basis of impressionistic evaluations only, say that the tranquilizers are of some aid in the psychotherapy of those patients who are so agitated, anxious, and hyperactive that they cannot sit still very long for psychotherapy. However, working out the finer nuances of emotional conflicts of a patient in psychotherapy is precluded when the patient is regularly taking a tranquilizer, because the patient appears to become too insulated against emotional reactions to realize or care that he is responding with feeling in some pertinent way. As with the phenothiazine derivatives, the place of the rauwolfia alkaloids in the potential armamentarium of the interrogation has not been established. Speculatively, the tranquilizers might be of avail in selected informants who are highly agitated and disturbed, and who might yield information in return for the relaxation they experience with such a sedative.
Considerable percentage allocated and the transmission of infection through blood transfusions and surgical interventions order benadryl 25mg line. Among the age groups generic 25 mg benadryl amex, about 75 % of cases of hepatitis C are young people of working age 15-29 benadryl 25mg sale. No serious control measures such as vaccination against hepatitis C, optionally also in most cases asymptomatic course of the disease leads to the annual growth of the number of infected people in the world. The improvement of the epidemiological situation on the incidence of hepatitis C is an important factor to obtain objective information. This can be achieved thanks to the timely detection of various forms of the infection process, the implementation of state programs of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis forms. In connection with the problems of globalization, the growth of the disease worldwide each year on July 28, is World Hepatitis Day. Helicobacter pylori - microorganism that lives on the surface of the mucous membrane of the stomach. These bacteria produce large amounts of toxins that damage the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Such damage leads to inflammation and the development of gastritis, ulcers and other pathological conditions. Most of the currently known organisms can not survive in the acidic environment of the stomach. In the scientific literature points to the possible role of this organism in the development of other diseases not related to the digestive system - including coronary heart disease, as well as delayed growth of children. According to statistics, the incidence of infection increases progressively with age. The study showed that the study helikobakterioza prevalence among different population groups, ways of transmission can be considered as helikobakterioza infectious disease is endemic. So today we can say that people suffering from diseases of the stomach, there are good reasons checked the presence of H. In the Kharkiv region as a whole in Ukraine, noted a tendency to increase the allocation of multiresistant strains, which amounted to 63. The above requires the timely correction of medical treatment and treatment according to sensitivity of the pathogen and at first doing tests for sensitivity on time. Determination of microbial sensitivity to chemotherapy in vitro antibacterial held in conditions that are significantly different from those in which the drug acts in the body. Its results are strongly affected by factors such as the composition and pH of the culture medium, size seeding dose, age, culture, cultivation conditions, etc. Mediums to determine the sensitivity should be standard and provide optimal conditions for the growth of microorganisms not contain inhibitors of bacterial growth and excessive amounts of stimulants do not contain substances that inhibit the action of antibacterial chemotherapy. The method of direct determination of drug resistance is that sputum or other clinical material sown directly in media containing extremal concentrations of antibiotics. Among the disadvantages of this method is the inability to standardize the method, the inability to use the specimen with negative result of microscopy, increased risk of contamination, deficient growth of culture that does not give reliable conclusions. There are 3 classic cultural methods for detection the sensitivity of mycobacteria to drugs: by absolute concentration, by coefficient of 120 resistance and by proportions. The method of proportions is well known at present and its generally accepted in Ukraine. If the number of individuals resistant to antibiotics in a population of less than 1. The methods have their advantages: high specificity, high sensitivity (10-100 cells per 1 ml of sample), the identification of genetic markers of resistans of M. The presence of several types of bacteria in the test sample can interfere correct interpretation of the test. False positive results can be caused by using insufficiently specific test systems. The most common among them there is method of proportions, and several express methods using the equipment for molecular genetic diagnosis. Combining traditional and new research methods to optimize and speed up laboratory diagnostics, as well as contributes to the success in the treatment of mycobacterial infections. According to statistical date, nearly every third person on our planet has Hypertension. The treatment of Hypertension in Nigeria remains a difficult problem not only due to a lack of diagnostic as well as due to incompliance patient to treatment. The aim of study was to analyze appropriateness of prescription of different antihypertensive drug in Light Hospital in Nigeria to improve medical care condition in African Patients and to ensure compliance to medication for optimum efficiency of Treatment of Hypertension. We have used as material random sampling of 61 Case History of Hypertensive Patients in Light Hospital in Nigeria. Frequency of prescription of antihypertensive agent as monotherapy and as combined treatment were studied. We analyzed how rational combinations were, and if prescriptions were consistent with international guidelines. Among antihypertensive drugs not included in the guidelines, we met alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockers in 10 patient (16. Nigeria, which adopts the British pharmacopoeia and method of treatment, has a little deviation in antihypertensive treatment order due to the African race and predisposition. Development of national guidelines for treatment of Hypertension could improve medical care condition in Nigeria and ensure compliance patients to antihypertensive treatment. Neuroprotective drugs is a collective term that includes regulators of afferent innervation with depressing and stimulating action and medicines with efferent actions influencing on the autonomic nervous system and skeletal muscle motor nerves. The aim of our research was to investigate the prevalence of neuroprotective agents in treating encephalopathy. We have analyzed fifty four patients case history with encephalopathy from Neurological Department of the Therapeutic Hospital of Scientific Educational Medical Complex ―University Clinic‖ of Kharkov National Medical University. Among all prescriptions, the most often we met drugs affecting metabolic processes, psychostimulant/nootropics, vitamin B complex, angioprotectors. From the group of medicines affecting metabolic processes, the following drugs were mostly prescribed: actovegin/solcoseryl (help improve tissue regeneration, membrane stabilizing and cytoprotective) was prescribed to 38 patients (70. In spite of the recent study of pathogenic aspects of encephalopathy, practical medicine treatment approaches of encepalopathy is still symptomatic. Renal hypoperfusion occurs as a result of reduced cardiac output, resulting the activation of the renin–angiotensin– aldosterone system. As the rise of aldosterone in bloodstream causes increase in atrial and perivascular fibrosis. To investigate the epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology and medical charts of heart failure treatment in Iraq hospital. The questionnaire contained the main information on patient state with moderate and severe heart failure, treatment with specification of spironolactone administration, and its side effects Results and discussion.
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