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There is no evidence to suggest that nutrients consumed at the recom- mended intake (the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake) present a risk of adverse effects to the general population cheap 0.5 mg dutasteride fast delivery. For cases in which adverse effects have been associated with intake only from supple- 1It is recognized that possible exceptions to this generalization relate to specific geochemical areas with excessive environmental exposures to certain trace ele- ments (e order dutasteride 0.5 mg. The effects of nutrients from fortified foods or supplements may differ from those of naturally occurring con- stituents of foods because of the chemical form of the nutrient order dutasteride 0.5 mg overnight delivery, the timing of the intake and amount consumed in a single bolus dose, the matrix supplied by the food, and the relation of the nutrient to the other con- stituents of the diet. Nutrient requirements and food intake are related to the metabolizing body mass, which is also at least an indirect measure of the space in which the nutrients are distributed. This relation between food intake and space of distribution supports homeostasis, which main- tains nutrient concentrations in that space within a range compatible with health. However, excessive intake of a single nutrient from supplements or fortificants may compromise this homeostatic mechanism. Such elevations alone may pose risks of adverse effects; imbalances among the nutrients may also be possible. These reasons and those discussed previously sup- port the need to include the form and pattern of consumption in the assessment of risk from high nutrient or food component intake. Consideration of Variability in Sensitivity The risk assessment model outlined in this chapter is consistent with classical risk assessment approaches in that it must consider variability in the sensitivity of individuals to adverse effects of nutrients or food compo- nents. A discussion of how variability is dealt with in the context of nutri- tional risk assessment follows. Physiological changes and common conditions associated with growth and maturation that occur during an individual’s lifespan may influence sensitivity to nutrient toxicity. For example, sensitivity increases with declines in lean body mass and with the declines in renal and liver function that occur with aging; sensitivity changes in direct relation to intestinal absorp- tion or intestinal synthesis of nutrients; sensitivity increases in the new- born infant because of rapid brain growth and limited ability to secrete or biotransform toxicants; and sensitivity increases with decreases in the rate of metabolism of nutrients. During pregnancy, the increase in total body water and glomerular filtration results in lower blood levels of water-soluble vitamins dose for dose, and therefore results in reduced susceptibility to potential adverse effects. However, in the unborn fetus this may be offset by active placental transfer, accumulation of certain nutrients in the amni- otic fluid, and rapid development of the brain. Examples of life stage groups that may differ in terms of nutritional needs and toxicological sen- sitivity include infants and children, the elderly, and women during preg- nancy and lactation. The model described below accounts for the normal expected variability in sensitivity, but it excludes subpopulations with extreme and distinct vulnerabilities. Such subpopulations consist of individuals needing medical supervision; they are better served through the use of public health screening, product labeling, or other individual- ized health care strategies. Bioavailability In the context of toxicity, the bioavailability of an ingested nutrient can be defined as its accessibility to normal metabolic and physiological processes. Bioavailability influences a nutrient’s beneficial effects at physi- ological levels of intake and also may affect the nature and severity of toxicity due to excessive intakes. The concentration and chemical form of the nutrient, the nutrition and health of the individual, and excretory losses all affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data for specific nutrients must be considered and incorporated into the risk assessment process. Some nutrients may be less readily absorbed when part of a meal than when consumed separately. Supplemental forms of some nutrients may require special consideration if they have higher bioavailability since they may present a greater risk of producing adverse effects than equivalent amounts from the natural form found in food. Nutrient–Nutrient Interactions A diverse array of adverse health effects can occur as a result of the interaction of nutrients. The potential risks of adverse nutrient–nutrient interactions increase when there is an imbalance in the intake of two or more nutrients. Excessive intake of one nutrient may interfere with absorp- tion, excretion, transport, storage, function, or metabolism of a second nutrient. With regard to the form of intake, fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A, are more readily absorbed when they are part of a meal that is high in fat. Nutrient supplements that are taken separately from food require special consideration because they are likely to have different bioavailabilities and therefore may repre- sent a greater risk of producing adverse effects. The primary types of data used as background for identifying nutrient hazards in humans are: • Human studies. Human data provide the most relevant kind of infor- mation for hazard identification and, when they are of sufficient quality and extent, are given the greatest weight. However, the number of con- trolled human toxicity studies conducted in a clinical setting is very limited because of ethical reasons. Such studies are generally most useful for identifying very mild (and ordinarily reversible) adverse effects. Observa- tional studies that focus on well-defined populations with clear exposures to a range of nutrient intake levels are useful for establishing a relation- ship between exposure and effect. Observational data in the form of case reports or anecdotal evidence are used for developing hypotheses that can lead to knowledge of causal associations. Sometimes a series of case reports, if it shows a clear and distinct pattern of effects, may be reasonably con- vincing on the question of causality. Most of the available data used in regulatory risk assess- ments come from controlled laboratory experiments in animals, usually mammalian species other than humans (e. Such data are used in part because human data on nonessential chemicals are generally very limited. Moreover, there is a long-standing history of the use of animal studies to identify the toxic properties of chemical substances, and there is no inherent reason why animal data should not be relevant to the evalua- tion of nutrient toxicity. They can, for example, be readily controlled so that causal relationships can be recognized. The effects of chronic exposures can be identified in far less time than they can with the use of epidemio- logical methods. All these advantages of animal data, however, may not always overcome the fact that species differences in response to chemical substances can sometimes be profound, and any extrapolation of animal data to predict human response needs to take this possibility into account. Key issues that are addressed in the data evaluation of human and animal studies are described below (see Box 4-1). Evidence of Adverse Effects in Humans The hazard identification step involves the examination of human, animal, and in vitro published evidence that addresses the likelihood of a nutrient eliciting an adverse effect in humans. Decisions about which observed effects are adverse are based on scientific judgment. Although toxicologists generally regard any demonstrable structural or functional alteration as representing an adverse effect, some alterations may be con- sidered to be of little or self-limiting biological importance. As noted ear- lier, adverse nutrient–nutrient interactions are considered in the defini- tion of an adverse effect. As explained in Chapter 2, the criteria of Hill (1971) are considered in judging the causal significance of an exposure–effect association indicated by epidemiological studies. Relevance of Experimental Data Consideration of the following issues can be useful in assessing the relevance of experimental data. Some animal data may be of limited utility in judging the toxicity of nutrients because of highly variable interspecies differences in nutrient requirements.
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It provides special expertise and the facilities for the support of vital functions and uses the skills of medical, nursing and other personnel experienced in the management of these problems. It encompasses all areas that provide Level 2 (high dependency) and/or Level 3 (intensive care) care as defined by the Intensive Care Society document Levels of Critical Care for Adult Patients (2009). Where applicable the hospital must provide adequate resources for these activities. These standards apply to all units capable of looking after Level 2 or Level 3 critically ill patients, whether they are called Intensive Care, Critical Care or High Dependency Units and no distinction is made between them. Am J should deliver continuity of demonstrate that the majority work blocks of days Respir Crit Care Med. A minority of units still have different Consultants covering for 24-hour blocks throughout the week. There must be immediate access to a practitioner who is skilled with advanced airway techniques. Comprehensive In larger hospitals, the Clinical Director should only Critical Care. The Benefits of delivering other services, such as emergency medicine, Consultant Delivered Care. The Benefits of needs to receive an appropriate amount of Consultant Delivered Care. The ward round presence or input of the other professionals to must have daily input from facilitate this process. Unit will have a identified Lead nurse with detailed knowledge and skills to 2006 Jul;22(3):393-406 Nurse who is formally undertake the operational management and strategic development of the service. Band 8a Matron • undertaken leadership/management training • be in possession of a post registration award in Critical Care Nursing • be in possession or working towards post graduate study in relevant area This person will be supported by a tier of Band 7 sisters/charge nurses who will collectively manage human resources, health & safety, equipment management, research, audit, infection prevention & control, quality improvement and staff development. The care beds and geographical layout of units and as a number of additional staff per minimum will require: shift will be incremental depending on the size and 11 – 20 beds = 1 additional supernumerary layout of the unit (e. All registered Competency Framework nurses commencing in critical care should be for Adult Critical Care practice commenced on Step 1 of the National Competency Nurses. The supernumerary period for newly qualified nurses should be a minimum of 6 weeks; this time frame may need to be extended depending on the individual The length of supernumerary period for staff with previous experience will depend on the type and length of previous experience and how recently this was obtained. Newly appointed staff that have completed preceptorship should be allocated a mentor. Standards set in the stroke population for complex patient that is required, for a minimum rehabilitation should be mirrored for this patient of 5 days a week, at a level that cohort. Rehabilitation outcomes the patient’s pathway and able to facilitate care 2011 Apr 7;364(14):1293- quantified using a tool that can needs assessments. Follow-up appointments and discussed with the to facilitate care needs in the 2013 May 28;17(3):R100 patient and primary carer. Intensive have a Physiotherapist of in conjunction in order to optimize patient’s physical Care Med. Physiotherapy staffing should be adequate to provide both the respiratory management and rehabilitation components of care. Crit Care Med specific to critical care brings additional benefits 2006; 34: S46–S51 such as optimal staff skill mix and support. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2012, 74: 411- clear evidence they improve the safe and effective 423 use of medicines in critical care patients. As well as direct clinical activities (including prescribing), pharmacists should provide professional support activities (e. An example of the team used for a hospital with 100 critical care beds would be band 8 specialist critical care pharmacists, comprising: a band 8C consultant pharmacist, a band 8b (as deputy), 2 to 3 at band 8a and 3 to 4 at band 7. A band 7 pharmacist is considered a training grade for specialist pharmacy services. This allows the work to be completed with high grade pharmacy expertise available to bear on critically ill patients. Access to experience and expertise may Specialist Pharmacy areas and have the minimum be within the Trust, or perhaps externally (e.
For example discount 0.5 mg dutasteride otc, in the Treatments for Women section order dutasteride 0.5mg visa, the chapter on cancer of the nose is followed immediately by one on provoking the menses (¶¶ and ) buy dutasteride 0.5 mg with visa, with no chapter division to signal the separation of two such obviously distinct topics. Still, the addition of the regularized rubrics undoubtedly increased the utility of the text for ref- erence purposes. Perhaps the most important of these rubrics was the open- ing one: ‘‘On the Diseases of Women According to Trotula’’ (De passionibus mulierum secundum Trotulam), yet another reinforcement of the attribution of this wide-ranging collection of texts on women’s medicine to the single author ‘‘Trotula. Many of the changes that the texts underwent between their com- position and the mid-thirteenth century were subtle and insigniﬁcant for the works’ actual theoretical or therapeutic content. Some changes might be con- sidered real improvements: the transposition of several of Treatments for Women’s cosmetic chapters into the Women’s Cosmetics section rendered them more accessible, while additions like the precise instructions for the prepara- tion of starch (¶) must have been genuinely helpful. But some changes were not calculated emendments but accidental errors that crept into the texts. The loss of the negative in the opening sentence of ¶ in Treatments for Women, for example, had the result of encouraging treatment of old women suﬀer- ing from a sanious ﬂux, whereas the original text had said it was pointless to treat them because they were already incapable of bearing children. Many errors or corruptions, of course, would not have been obvious to readers without multiple copies of the texts at hand. Yet the failure of later scribes or readers to correct some of the more glaring errors must give us pause when imagining how actively the standardized ensemble in particular might Introduction have been used in any kind of clinical setting. Not a single reader of the extant standardized ensemble manuscripts seems to have noticed, for example, the obvious logical inconsistency within a recipe in Women’s Cosmetics for redden- ing the skin and lips, where an accidental misreading changed a prescription to use a violet dye into one for a green dye (¶). And one wonders how even the most dedicated occultist could have made sense of the garbled magical passages in ¶¶ and . It is likely, however, that the standardized ensemble became the preferred version of the Trotula texts, not because it was scrutinized in de- tail for every possible remedy for women’s conditions (there are, after all, over three hundred diﬀerent prescribed therapies), but because it could serve a more general function as a basic referencework on fertility—a subject on which there was increasing concern from the thirteenth century on. L D The standardized ensemble is today found in twenty-nine manuscripts from all parts of Latinate Europe. In the ﬁfteenth century, even though other forms of the texts were still being tran- scribed in many parts of Europe, the standardized ensemble seems to have been rarely copied in Italy, England, or even in France, where the text had earlier achieved its greatest popularity. Most of the extant ﬁfteenth-century manu- scripts come from central and eastern Europe. The standardized ensemble seems always to have been closely associated with university circles and in this context manuscripts preserved their utilityas reference texts for years after their initial composition. At his death (sometime between and ), the theo- logian Gérard of Utrecht left his copy to the College of the Sorbonne in Paris, where it was to remain until the modern period. Caillau then gave the manuscript to his patron the duke in exchange for another book. A ﬁnal indication of the standardized ensemble’s utility was its translation in the ﬁfteenth century into the vernacular, once into Dutch, once, perhaps twice into French, and twice into German. Copy after copy reproduced the text with hardly any variation, in stark contrast to earlier versions, which copyists often felt free to abridge or emend as they liked. One scribe re- interpreted the title as ‘‘The Good TreatiseWhich Is Entitled ‘The Old Woman on the Suﬀerings [of Women]. Kraut’s major editorial innova- tion was to reorganize all the material from the ensemble into one smoothly ordered summa, rearranging the ensemble’s disparate parts into sixty-one chap- ters. Gone, too, of course, were any remaining hints that the Trotula was a concretion of a variety of sources from a variety of diﬀer- ent authors. While in general Kraut seems to have been concerned to preserve most of the material he found in the standardized ensemble, humanist that he was he could not refrain entirely from tidying up the text. He suppressed the two references to magical practices to aid birth in Conditions of Women (¶¶ and ), he clariﬁed that the contraceptives were to be used only if out of fear of death the woman did not dare conceive,221 and he apologized for the in- clusion of mechanisms to ‘‘restore’’ virginity, saying that he would not have included them were they not necessary to aid in conception. Kraut was apparently motivated by the desire to make both the femininity and the originalityof ‘‘Trotula’’ more apparent. Whereas neither the original Condi- tions of Women nor the standardized ensemble had oﬀered any direct hint of the author’s gender, Kraut, presuming the whole of his newly uniﬁed text to be the work of a single feminine author, altered the preface to stress her gender. He also omitted the names of Hippocrates and Galen and even the author’s clear admission that the work was a compilation of excerpts from other writings. Kraut’s artiﬁcial text with his artiﬁcially uniﬁed and gendered author proved to be authoritative; all subsequent Renaissance editors reprinted this humanist fabrication rather than returning to the medieval manuscripts. Kraut’s edition thus occluded the medieval history of the texts from view, with the result that most of the modern controversy about the authoress ‘‘Trotula’’ has produced little more than idle speculation. The Trotula texts, whoever their authors may have been, were very real and very inﬂuential throughout Europe for nearly half a millennium. What- ever their relationship to Trota or the other women of Salerno, the Trotula were one of the pillars on which later medieval culture was built, being present in the libraries of physicians and surgeons, monks and philosophers, theolo- gians and princes from Italy to Ireland, from Spain to Poland. When Latin- ate physicians or surgeons (such as the anonymous surgeon who owned the Laon manuscript used in the edition here) wanted a handbook on women’s medicine, they used the Trotula. When medieval translators looked for gyne- cological material to render into the vernacular, it was to the Trotula texts that they most frequently turned. Of ten gynecological texts composed in Middle English between the fourteenth and ﬁfteenth centuries, for example, ﬁve are renditions of the Trotula. The Latin texts probably only rarely made their way into women’s hands in the early years after their composition, perhaps not at all after the thirteenth century. The Laon manuscript just mentioned, for example, passed from that anonymous male surgeon into the holdings of the cathedral of Laon, where it was annotated and used by the canons of the cathedral for the rest of the Middle Ages. Every other manuscript whose provenance is known is similarly found passing exclusively through the hands of men. Its early provenance is not known, but it has the distinction among the Latin Trotula manuscripts in being the smallest codex, a handbook less than six by four inches in size. It also contains only one other text: a brief tract on useful and harmful foods, which could, conceivably, be used for self-medication by controlling diet. There are no contemporary annotations to conﬁrm owner- ship by a woman, but its small size (similar to that of the books of hours owned by many upper-class women in this period) and the absence of any other, more technical medical literature may suggest use by a layperson and so, perhaps, by a woman. The author of the earliest English translation, writ- ing in the late fourteenth or early ﬁfteenth century, went so far as to demand of any male reader who happened upon the text that ‘‘he read it not in spite nor [in order to] slander any woman nor for any reason but for healing and helping them. It seems, then, that relative to their widespread popularity among male practitioners and intellectuals, it was only very infrequently that the Trotula found their way into the hands of women. Despite the recognition by the author of Conditions of Women that women often did not want to turn to male physicians, the Trotula seem to have functioned as a prime tool by which male practitioners did, in fact, come to have signiﬁcant control over the practice of gynecology and cosmetics. Note on This Edition and Translation T E The following edition of the Trotula ensemble represents the standardized text as it circulated in the latter half of the thirteenth century through the turn of the fourteenth century. The nine manuscripts collated here were chosen on the basis of their early date and the integrity of their text. The text, including orthography, reﬂects that of the Basel manuscript, including the hand of the original scribe (B), that scribe’s own corrections (B1), and the corrections of a second, slightly later hand (B2). I have deviated from B’s text only in those cases where the orthography seemed misleading, or where the unanimous agreement of the other manuscripts suggested a lacuna or an error in B. Where B’s reading is unique but not necessarily erroneous, however, I have retained it despite the unanimity of the other manuscripts. All variants are noted in the apparatus with the following two exceptions: varia- tions in word order and orthography, except in those cases where they seemed potentially meaningful, and the presence orabsence of et except, again, in those cases where it might be important to the sense.
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