By Z. Will. Pitzer College.
The Islamic Republic of Iran assessed that buy discount rogaine 5 60 ml, in 2009 order rogaine 5 60 ml amex, one quarter of cannabis resin trafficked on its territory was intended for the country itself discount rogaine 5 60 ml mastercard, with the remainder intended for Arab countries, Turkey and Europe. Seizures in Afghanistan fell from the record level of 2008 (271 mt) to the relatively low level of 10. Neverthe- less, Canada has a significant consumer market for can- 200 The cannabis market Fig. Figures in brackets represent the upper and lowest and highest provincial price observed. Myanmar, reported eradication of opium poppy by region (ha), 2006-2010 Region 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 East Shan 32 1,101 1,249 702 868 North Shan 76 916 932 546 1,309 South Shan 3,175 1,316 1,748 1,466 3,138 Shan State total 3,283 3,333 3,929 2,714 5,316 Kachin 678 189 790 1,350 2,936 Kayah 0 12 12 14 13 Total within the surveyed area 3,961 3,534 4,731 4,078 8,265 Magwe 0 45 0 1 1 Chin 0 10 86 5 2 Mandalay Sagaing Other states 9 64 0 0 0 Total (national) 3,970 3,598 4,820 4,087 8,268 25 The estimates in Kayah for 2008 and 2009 are not directly compara- ble due to a change in methodology. For the calculation of coca 29 Takes into account all coca leaf produced, irrespective of its use. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by United Nations. Aggregation of subregional estimates rolled-up into government reports and scientific literature were also regional results to arrive at global estimates. Assessing the extent of drug use (the number of drug In cases of estimates referring to previous years, the users) is a particularly difficult undertaking because it prevalence rates were left unchanged and applied to new involves measuring the size of a ‘hidden’ population. Currently, only Margins of error are considerable, and tend to increase two countries measure drug prevalence among the gen- as the scale of estimation is raised, from local to national, eral population on an annual basis. Regional and global estimates countries that regularly measure it - typically the more are reported as ranges to reflect the information gaps. Identiﬁcation of key benchmark ﬁgures for the level of countries in Oceania and a limited number of countries drug use in all countries where data are available (an- in Asia and Africa. One key problem in national data is nual prevalence of drug use among the general popu- the level of accuracy, which varies strongly from country lation aged 15-64) which then serve as ‘anchor points’ to country. Not all estimates are based on sound epide- for subsequent calculations; miological surveys. In some cases, the estimates simply reflect the aggregate number of drug users found in drug 3. Even in cases where the World Drug Report (for example, from age group detailed information is available, there is often consider- 12 and above to a standard age group of 15-64) ; able divergence in definitions used, such as chronic or 4. Adjustments of national indicators to estimate an an- regular users; registry data (people in contact with the nual prevalence rate if such a rate is not available (for treatment system or the judicial system) versus survey example, by using the lifetime prevalence or current data (usually extrapolation of results obtained through use rates; or lifetime or annual prevalence rates among interviews of a selected sample); general population the student population). Tis includes the identiﬁca- versus specific surveys of groups in terms of age (such as tion of adjustment factors based on information from school surveys), special settings (such as hospitals or neighbouring countries with similar cultural, social prisons), et cetera. Imputation for countries where data is not available, aggregating such diverse estimates, an attempt has been based on data from countries in the same subregion. All available estimates were transformed 90th percentile of the subregional distribution; into one single indicator – annual prevalence among the general population aged 15 to 64 - using transformation 6. Extrapolation of available results for a subregion were ratios derived from analysis of the situation in neigh- calculated only for subregions where prevalence esti- bouring countries, and if such data were not available, mates for at least two countries covering at least 20% using global average estimates. If, due to a lack of that though the level of drug use differs between coun- data, subregional estimates were not extrapolated, a tries, there are general patterns (for example, lifetime regional calculation was extrapolated based on the prevalence is higher than annual prevalence; young 10th and 90th percentile of the distribution of the people consume more drugs than older people; males data available from countries in the region. For example, it is generally accepted that nation- rates than the general population, et cetera) which apply ally representative household surveys are reasonably to most countries. Thus, household survey results were usu- among the general population, except for emerging drug ally given priority over other sources of prevalence esti- trends, do not vary greatly among countries with similar mates. It is also part of the Lisbon number of ‘indirect’ methods have been developed to Consensus on core epidemiological demand indicators provide estimates for this group of drug users, including which has been endorsed by the Commission on Nar- benchmark and multiplier methods (benchmark data cotic Drugs. Drug consumption among the youth population countries where there was evidence that the primary (prevalence and incidence); ‘problem drug’ was opiates, and an indirect estimate existed for ‘problem drug use’ or injecting drug use, this 3. High-risk drug use (number of injecting drug users was preferred over household survey estimates of heroin and the proportion engaged in high-risk behaviour, use. Utilization of services for drug problems; alence data found by means of household surveys. Drug-related mortality (deaths directly attributable to Extrapolation methods used drug consumption). Adjustment for differences in age groups Efforts have been made to present the drug situation from countries and regions based on these key epide- Member States are increasingly using the 15-64 age miological indicators. Where the age groups reported by Member States did not differ The use of annual prevalence is a compromise between significantly from 15-64, they were presented as lifetime prevalence data (drug use at least once in a life- reported, and the age group specified. Where studies time) and data on current use (drug use at least once were based on significantly different age groups, results over the past month). A number of countries reported ally shown as a percentage of the youth and adult popu- prevalence rates for the age groups 15+ or 18+. The definitions of the age groups vary, however, cases, it was generally assumed that there was no signifi- from country to country. The number of drug bution of drug use among the different age cohorts in users based on the population age 15+ (or age 18+) was most countries, differences in the age groups can lead to thus shown as a proportion of the population aged substantially diverging results. Applying different methodologies may also yield diverg- Extrapolation of results from lifetime prevalence to ing results for the same country. In such cases, the annual prevalence sources were analysed in-depth and priority was given to the most recent data and to the methodological Some countries have conducted surveys in recent years approaches that are considered to produce the best without asking the question whether drug consumption 258 Methodology took place over the last year. For for a country with a lifetime prevalence of cocaine use of example, country X in West and Central Europe reported 2% would decline to 0. Therefore, data the higher the lifetime prevalence, the higher the annual from countries in the same subregion with similar pat- prevalence and vice versa. Based on the resulting regres- terns in drug use were used, wherever possible, for sion curve (y = annual prevalence and x = lifetime prev- extrapolation purposes. Almost the same result is obtained by calculating interval among those aged 15-64 years in the given the ratio of the unweighted annual prevalence rates of country. The greater the range, the larger the level of the West and Central European countries and the uncertainty around the estimates. Extrapolations based on school surveys A similar approach was used to calculate the overall ratio by averaging the annual/lifetime ratios, calculated for Analysis of countries which have conducted both school each country. Multiplying the resulting average ratio surveys and national household surveys shows that there (0. There is a close correlation The correlation, however, is weaker than that of lifetime observed between lifetime and annual prevalence (and and annual prevalence or current use and annual preva- an even stronger correlation between annual prevalence lence among the general population. In 0 such cases, other countries in the region with a similar socio-economic structure were identified, which reported Life-time prevalence in % of population age 15-64 annual prevalence and treatment data. A ratio of people Data points treated per 1,000 drug users was calculated for each Regression curve country. The results from different countries were then 259 World Drug Report 2011 averaged and the resulting ratio was used to extrapolate possible. One exception was South Asia’s subregional the likely number of drug users from the number of opiate and cannabis estimates. Instead of using all prevalence estimates number of people who use drugs and the for Asia (that is, estimates from the Near and Middle health consequences East to East Asia) to determine India’s contribution to the subregional uncertainty, it was determined that For this purpose, the estimated prevalence rates of coun- India’s contribution was best reflected by its neighboring tries were applied to the population aged 15-64, as countries.
Research shows See Chapter 6 - Health Care Systems that the most effective way to help someone with a substance and Substance Use Disorders buy discount rogaine 5 60 ml. With this recognition effective rogaine 5 60 ml, screening for substance misuse is increasingly being provided in general health care settings rogaine 5 60 ml online, so that emerging problems can be detected and early intervention provided if necessary. The addition of services to address substance use problems and disorders in mainstream health care has extended the continuum of care, and includes a range of effective, evidence-based medications, behavioral therapies, and supportive services. However, a number of barriers have limited the widespread adoption of these services, including lack of resources, insufcient training, and workforce shortages. This is particularly true for5 the treatment of those with co-occurring substance use and physical or mental disorders. The great majority of treatment has occurred in specialty substance use disorder treatment programs with little involvement by primary or general health care. However, a shift is occurring to mainstream the delivery of early intervention and treatment services into general health care practice. However, an insuffcient number of existing treatment programs or practicing physicians offer these medications. Well-supported scientifc evidence shows that these brief interventions work with mild severity alcohol use disorders, but only promising evidence suggests that they are effective with drug use disorders. The goals of treatment are to reduce key symptoms to non-problematic levels and improve health and functional status; this is equally true for those with co-occurring substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Treatments using these evidence-based practices have shown better results than non-evidence-based treatments and services. In this regard, substance use disorder treatment is effective and has a positive economic impact. An integrated that treatment also improves individuals’ productivity,11 system of care that guides and 11,12 13-15 tracks a person over time through health, and overall quality of life. In addition, studies a comprehensive array of health show that every dollar spent on substance use disorder services appropriate to the individual’s treatment saves $4 in health care costs and $7 in criminal need. These common but less severe disorders often respond to brief motivational interventions and/or supportive monitoring, referred to as guided self-change. To address the spectrum of substance use problems and disorders, a continuum of care provides individuals an array of service options based on need, including prevention, early intervention, treatment, and recovery support (Figure 4. Traditionally, the vast majority of treatment for substance use disorders has been provided in specialty substance use disorder treatment programs, and these programs vary substantially in their clinical objectives and in the frequency, intensity, and setting of care delivery. Substance Use Status Continuum Substance Use Care Continuum Enhancing Health Primary Early Treatment Recovery Prevention Intervention Support Promoting Addressing Screening Intervening through medication, Removing barriers optimum physical individual and and detecting counseling, and other supportive and providing and mental environmental substance use services to eliminate symptoms supports to health and well- risk factors problems at and achieve and maintain sobriety, aid the long- being, free from for substance an early stage physical, spiritual, and mental health term recovery substance misuse, use through and providing and maximum functional ability. Includes through health evidence- brief Levels of care include: a range of social, mmunications and based intervention, educational, • Outpatient services; access to health programs, as needed. This chapter describes the early intervention and treatment components of the continuum of care, the major behavioral, pharmacological, and service components of care, services available, and emerging treatment technologies: $ Early Intervention, for addressing substance misuse problems or mild disorders and helping to prevent more severe substance use disorders. The goals of early intervention are to reduce the harms associated with substance misuse, to reduce risk behaviors before they lead to injury,18 to improve health and social function, and to prevent progression to a disorder and subsequent need for specialty substances use disorder services. Early intervention services may be considered the bridge between prevention and treatment services. For individuals with more serious substance misuse, intervention in these settings can serve as a mechanism to engage them into treatment. In 2015, an estimated 214,000 women consumed alcohol while pregnant, and an estimated 109,000 pregnant women used illicit drugs. Positive screening results should then be followed by brief advice or counseling tailored to the specifc problems and interests of the individual and delivered in a non-judgmental manner, emphasizing both the importance of reducing substance use and the individual’s ability to accomplish this goal. Professional organizations, including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend universal and ongoing screening for substance use and mental health issues for adults and adolescents. Within these contexts, substance misuse can be reliably identifed through dialogue, observation, medical tests, and screening instruments. In addition to these tools, single-item screens for presence of drug use (“How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for nonmedical reasons? They often include feedback to the individual about their level of use relative to safe limits, as well as advice to aid the individual in decision-making. In such cases, the care provider makes a referral for a clinical assessment followed by a clinical treatment plan developed with the individual that is tailored to meet the person’s needs. The literature on the effectiveness of drug-focused brief intervention in primary care and emergency departments is less clear, with some studies fnding no improvements among those receiving brief interventions. Trials evaluating different types of screening and brief interventions for drug use in a range of settings and on a range of patient characteristics are lacking. Of those who needed treatment but did not receive treatment, over 7 million were women and more than 1 million were adolescents aged 12 to 17. The most common reason is that they are unaware that they need treatment; they have never been told they have a substance use disorder or they do not consider themselves to have a problem. This is one reason why screening for substance use disorders in general health care settings is so important. In addition, among those who do perceive that they need substance use disorder treatment, many still do not seek it. For these individuals, the most common reasons given are:19 $ Not ready to stop using (40. A common 1 clinical feature associated with substance use disorders is an individual’s tendency to underestimate See Chapter 2 - The Neurobiology of the severity of their problem and to over-estimate Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction. This is likely due to 1 substance-induced changes in the brain circuits that control impulses, motivation, and decision making. The costs of care and lack of insurance coverage are particularly important issues for people with substance use disorders. However, even if an individual is insured, the payor may not cover some types or components of substance use disorder treatments, particularly medications. Harm reduction programs provide public health-oriented, evidence-based, and cost-effective services to prevent and reduce substance use-related risks among those actively using substances,59 and substantial evidence supports their effectiveness. Strategies include outreach and education programs, needle/syringe exchange programs, overdose prevention education, and access to naloxone to reverse potentially lethal opioid overdose. Outreach and Education Outreach activities seek to identify those with active substance use disorders who are not in treatment and help them realize that treatment is available, accessible, and necessary. Outreach and engagement methods may include telephone contacts, face-to-face street outreach, community engagement,64 or assertive outreach after a referral is made by a clinician or caseworker. Educational campaigns are also a common strategy for reducing harms associated with substance use. Such campaigns have historically been targeted toward substance-using individuals, giving them information and guidance on risks associated with sharing medications or needles, how to access low or no-cost treatment services, and how to prevent a drug overdose death. New cases of Hepatitis C infection increased 250 percent between 2010 and 2014, and occur primarily among young White people who inject drugs. The goal of needle/syringe exchange programs is to minimize infection transmission risks by giving individuals who inject drugs sterile equipment and other support services at little or no cost.
Many researchers are looking at genetic and environmental causes of Parkinson’s to see if they can identify targets for drugs that would help brain cells to fight the changes that cause Parkinson’s proven 60 ml rogaine 5. If we could do this rogaine 5 60 ml cheap, then our children could be tested for risk factors order 60 ml rogaine 5 amex, and people with a high risk for Parkinson’s could receive treatments to prevent it. Such a treatment might also slow Parkinson’s disease in people who already had the disease, but it might not. Most people with Parkinson’s can be easily diagnosed by a neurologist using standard clinical tests. However, sometimes it can be difficult to tell the difference between Parkinson’s disease and other conditions that mimic it, like when you experience Parkinson’s-like symptoms because of other medications, essential tremor or a small stroke. Further, figuring out how far Parkinson’s has progressed or your progression since your last evaluation is also difficult, as it may depend on where you are in terms of fluctuating medication effect, your level of fatigue and whether or not you got stuck in traffic on your way to the clinic. A better measure for progression would help with clinical trials of treatments to slow the disease. While treating the symptoms of the disease is not the same as slowing its progression, we are quite confident that exercising at least 2. Research is ongoing in many areas, including helping people who experience fluctuating medication effects (i. There are a number of ways in which scientists are working to help brain cells fight the effects of Parkinson’s. Scientists have some good leads that they are following with the hope of slowing the disease. To some extent, we do this every day through interventions like exercise, physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy, where clinicians help you compensate for the changes caused by Parkinson’s. All of us have to compensate for changes in our bodies and brains as we age, and so good therapy really does restore lost function. However, we would like to gain this benefit faster, and some of the changes with Parkinson’s can’t be corrected with therapy, so there is research into ways to restore cells that have been lost. Unfortunately, unlike bones and skin, the brain doesn’t have systems to automatically repair itself or to integrate a graft or transplant to replace cells that have been lost. However, if we had a treatment that could dramatically slow or stop disease progression, with early diagnosis we could hold people in the earliest stages of Parkinson’s for a long time. There appears to be an interplay between the actions of acetylcholine and dopamine. Adjunctive – Supplemental or secondary to (but not essential to) the primary agent (i. Antihistamine – A drug normally used to control allergies or as a sleep aid; some (like Benadryl) are anticholinergic drugs, with anti-tremor properties. Anxiolytic – An agent, usually referring to a class of medications that reduces anxiety. Autonomic neuropathy – Damage to the autonomic nerves, which affect involuntary body functions, including heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, digestion and other processes. Symptoms vary widely, depending on which parts of the autonomic nervous system are affected. They may include dizziness and fainting upon standing (orthostatic hypotension); urinary problems including difficulty starting urination, overflow incontinence and inability to empty your bladder completely; sexual difficulties including erectile dysfunction or ejaculation problems in men, and vaginal dryness and difficulties with arousal and orgasm in women; difficulty digesting food (gastroparesis); and sweating abnormalities including decreased or excessive sweating. Compulsive behaviors – Performing an act persistently and repetitively without it necessarily leading to an actual reward or pleasure; in Parkinson’s, this can be a side effect of dopamine agonists and usually takes the form of uncontrolled shopping, gambling, eating, or sexual urges. Confusion – The state of being unclear, with lack of understanding of situation and/ or surroundings; a symptom of many medications for Parkinson’s motor and non-motor symptoms. Initial symptoms may first appear on one side of the body, but eventually affect both sides. Other symptoms may include cognitive and visual-spatial impairments, loss of the ability to make familiar, purposeful movements, hesitant and halting speech, muscular jerks and difficulty swallowing. Dementia – Not a diagnosis, but descriptive of a broad symptom complex that can arise from a variety of causes. Symptoms can include disorientation, confusion, memory loss, impaired judgment and alterations in mood and personality. Diminished/decreased libido – Decreased sexual urges; a symptom of many medications for depression and anxiety. Double-blind study – A study in which neither the participants nor the investigators know which drug a patient is taking; designed to prevent observer bias in evaluating the effect of a drug. Dry mouth – Usually from decreased saliva production; a side effect of many medications for motor and non-motor symptoms. Dystonia – Involuntary spasms of muscle contraction that cause abnormal movements and postures. Etiology – The science of causes or origins of a disease; the etiology of Parkinson’s disease is unknown. Extended benefit – Unanticipated or potentially unexplained results of using a therapy or treatment. Extended risk – Activities you are not doing or thoughts you may have because of a treatment that can be detrimental to your health. Futility studies – a drug trial design that tests whether a drug is ineffective rather than the traditional study of whether it is effective. Relatively short futility studies allow for multiple drugs to be tested more quickly and easily, and further efficacy trials are offered for drugs that “pass” the futility trial. Glutamate – A salt or ester of glutamic acid related to the hydrolysis of proteins. Half-life – The time taken for the concentration of a drug in the bloodstream to decrease by one half; drugs with a shorter half-life must be taken more frequently. Holistic – Characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account social and other factors, not just symptoms of disease. Homocysteine – An amino acid that occurs in the body and is produced when levodopa is metabolized; elevated levels of homocysteine can cause blood clots, heart disease, and stroke. Integrative medicine – Involves bringing together conventional and complementary approaches in a coordinated way. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health uses the term “complementary health approaches” when discussing practices and products of non-mainstream origin, and the term “integrative health” when talking about incorporating complementary appoaches into mainstream health care. Low blood pressure – When blood pressure is below normal (normal range is usually between 90/60 mmHg and 120/80 mmHg); the medical name for low blood pressure is hypotension; common side effect of levodopa and dopamine agonists. Mild cognitive impairment can affect many areas of cognition such as memory, language, attention, reasoning, judgment, reading and/or writing. Mild cognitive impairment may be irritating but it does not typically change how a person lives their life. Mind-body therapies – Therapies that work on the premise that the mind, body, and spirit do not exist in isolation and that disease and/or symptoms change when these are out of balance. Natural therapies – Plant-derived chemicals and products, vitamins and minerals, probiotics, and nutritional supplements used to promote cell health and healing, control symptoms, and improve emotional wellbeing. Neurons – The structural and functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nerve cell body and all its processes, including an axon and one or more dendrites.
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