By D. Murat. New England College of Optometry.

It makes victims question the very instincts that they have counted on their whole lives purchase 960mg bactrim with visa, making them unsure of anything buy 480mg bactrim visa. Gaslighting makes it very likely that victims will believe whatever their abusers tell them regardless as to their own experience of the situation 480mg bactrim mastercard. Gaslighting often precedes other types of emotional and physical abuse because the victim of gaslighting is more likely to remain in other abusive situations as well. The term "gaslighting" comes from the 1938 British play "Gas Light" wherein a husband attempts to drive his wife crazy using a variety of tricks causing her to question her own perceptions and sanity. Gas Light was made into a movie both in 1940 and 1944. There are numerous gaslighting techniques which can make gaslighting more difficult to identify. Gaslighting abuse can be perpetrated by either women or men. It is then that the abuser will start to question the experiences, thoughts and opinions more globally through statements said in anger like:"You see everything in the most negative way. In this technique, the abuser pretends to forget things that have really occurred; the abuser may also deny things like promises that have been made that are important to the victim. The worst gaslighters will even create situations that allow for the usage of gaslighting techniques. Then "helping" the victim with her "bad memory" find the keys. According to author and psychoanalyst Robin Stern, Ph. You know something is terribly wrong, but you can never quite express what it is, even to yourself. You start lying to avoid the put downs and reality twists. You have the sense that you used to be a very different person - more confident, more fun-loving, more relaxed. You wonder if you are a "good enough" girlfriend/ wife/employee/ friend; daughter. The silent treatment is something that most people know about if, for no other reason, it comes up on the playground and in sitcoms repeatedly. The silent treatment, sometimes called "the cold shoulder," is the purposeful exclusion of one party from social interactions. The silent treatment is so named because the person will not talk to you but, in reality, the person may avoid all interaction with you including being in the same room. The roots of the silent treatment come from early cultures where a form of punishment was being ostracized. Ostracism was initially a Greek word and was the procedure in which a person could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. In many cultures, being ostracized meant almost certain death as people could not live without the protection of a society. To this day, we understand that humans are social beings and find it very difficult to exist completely outside of social interactions. The person giving the cold shoulder has all the power and creates a situation wherein all the attention is focused on him (or her), and what he perceives as being wrong. The silent treatment is often given as a form of punishment in a relationship and psychologists consider the silent treatment as a form of abuse. Silent treatment is abuse because: It is passive-aggressive behavior intended to hurt the other personIt shows a lack of caring, a lack of respect and a lack of valueIt can hurt the other person more than anything else you do, depending on the other personIt can contribute to depression, anxiety and low self-esteemFor many people, the silent treatment is the worst form of emotional abuse. If you quit playing your part of the game by not focusing on him and not getting angry, he will have to change his own behavior too. Research points to many causes of domestic violence, but all of these causes and risk factors have one underlying commonality: the abuser feels the need to exert complete control over his or her partner. Some studies indicate that a cause of domestic violence stems from an intersection of both environmental and individual factors. Essentially, this means that abusers learn to use abusive tactics to control others from the influence of family members, people around them, and cultural traditions as they grow from children to adults. Experts do not agree on the underlying causes of domestic violence, but they do agree that the victim never asks for or causes domestic abuse. Although most victims of domestic abuse are women, men can suffer at the hands of an abusive partner as well. They may convince the victim that she deserves the abuse or provoked it in some way, causing the abuser to "lose control". This represents a classic control tactic of abusers ??? convincing the victim that they cause the violence and bring it upon themselves. Victims do not cause the abuse; the abuser is in complete control of his or her behavior. What causes domestic violence to become the norm for an abuser? Most domestic abusers grew up witnessing domestic abuse and violence in their own homes. They learned to view physical and emotional violence as valid ways to vent anger and cope with their own internal fears and self-perception issues. The modeling they saw while growing up gets reinforced in these ways:Using violence and abuse tactics worked to solve problems for them in the pastThey have established tremendous control over others through abuse tacticsNo one has stopped them or reported them to authoritiesCommon triggers that set off an abuser:Disagreement with their intimate partnerProtracted periods of unemploymentDesperation when partner threatens to leaveHumiliation stemming from problems at work or other perceived failuresMany experts believe psychopathology, developed by growing up in a violent and abusive household causes domestic violence to continue as a generational legacy. This produces hostile, dependant, and emotionally insecure people with a deeply impaired ability to develop and maintain healthy relationships. Other experts believe genetic predisposition plays a part in the formation of an abuser, but very few studies offer definitive data to support this. In cultures where traditional beliefs endure that put women beneath men in status and personhood, domestic violence is rampant. Domestic violence victims come from every socioeconomic background, education level, religion, ethnic group, marital status, and sexual orientation. However, some people have risk factors that make them more likely to become victims of domestic abuse. Although both men ( Male Victims of Domestic Abuse ) and women can suffer at the hand of an abuser, the U. Department of Justice reports that fully 95 percent of victims of domestic violence are women. The decision to leave any relationship is never easy. But leaving an abusive relationship can prove even more challenging. Many abusers can put on a very convincing show of charm, repentance, and incredible affection.

Often it never goes beyond this generic bactrim 480mg amex, but some children start having the attacks often discount 480mg bactrim otc. A stressful event buy bactrim 480mg overnight delivery, like parents divorcing or a move to a new place, may trigger the beginning. But often PD begins with no identified stressful event. It is common for a child to have periods of time with attacks and then go weeks or months with few or none. What causes attacks to stop and return is often unclear. If a parent has panic disorder, children are more likely to have panic disorder, too. However, more than half of those with PD do not have a parent with a history of panic disorder. Children who were often scared when separated from their parents are more likely to develop PD later. Other than being hereditary, the causes of panic disorder are not certain. Children or teens with PD may:be short of breath or feel like they are being smotheredfeel like they are being choked or have trouble swallowingfeel their heart poundingfeel they are going to die or that they are going crazyfeel very helpless to stop the attacks. Along with these main symptoms, children or teens may:be on guard all the time or startle easilyeat very little or become very picky eatershave trouble concentrating due to worryperform below their capabilities in schoolhave frequent headaches or stomachacheshave trouble falling or staying asleep, or have nightmareslose interest in activities they once enjoyedtalk about death, such as saying "I wish I were dead. When this is the case, the child often worries as these times approach. A mental health therapist who specializes in working with children and teens may be best qualified to diagnose PD. Sometimes your child may need lab tests to rule out medical problems causing symptoms like stomachaches, trouble swallowing, or difficulties breathing. Children and teens may have other problems or disorders in addition to PD, such as: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) helps children learn what causes them to feel panic and how to control it. CBT teaches specific skills for managing the fear and the worrisome thoughts about whether an attack is coming. Gradual exposure therapy teaches the child to stay relaxed while being exposed to situations associated with panic attacks. Family therapy treats the whole family rather than just the child. Children often feel very supported when parents and siblings attend therapy with them and work as a group. Medicines are sometimes needed when the symptoms are severe. Medicines may help reduce the frequency of attacks or how severe they are. Medicines used to treat PD in adults may not work best for children and young teens. It is important to have an experienced professional working with you and your child. Most children and teens can get over PD with good treatment and family support. Very often PD lasts for weeks or months and then disappears or reduces dramatically. If a child has had PD once, then they are at greater risk for future PD. The mental health professional treating your child may recommend continuing treatment after your child begins to feel better. Symptoms may return since PD often comes and goes without a clear reason for stopping and starting. It is very important to help your children feel supported and reassured. Reassure your children that their feelings are understandable and that they are not "going crazy. Let your child talk about the scary feelings and fears of attacks if he or she feels ready. Do not force the issue if your child does not feel like sharing his or her thoughtsLet your child make simple decisions when appropriate. Because PD often makes a child feel powerless, you can help by showing him or her that he or she has control over certain parts of his or her life. For example, you might consider letting your child decide how to spend the day, especially allowing him or her to pick places where they feel safest from attacks. Tell your child (repeatedly if necessary) that the attacks are not his or her fault. Stay in touch with teachers, babysitters, and other people who care for your child to share information about symptoms your child may be having. Do not criticize your child for acting younger than his or her age. Make sure your child gets enough sleep and exercise every day. Teach children and teens to avoid alcohol, caffeine, and stimulants like ephedra and guarana. Take care of yourself so that you are well equipped to help your child. If you suspect that your child is suicidal, get professional help immediately. Thoughts of suicide are serious at any age and require prompt attention. When panic disorder seriously interferes with school, socializing with friends, or daily activities, your child needs help. If panic attacks happen more than a few times in a month, or if an attack is very severe, get professional help. The symptoms may not go away or may get worse without professional help. Get emergency care if your child or teenager has ideas of suicide, harming him- or herself, or harming others. American Psychiatric Association - Facts for Families, No. Detailed info on diagnosis and treatment of panic disorder and phobias in children and adolescents.

generic bactrim 480 mg mastercard

Neurotransmitters possibly linking marijuana and depression include:The answer to "is marijuana a depressant? It is known that decreasing these chemicals in the brain can lead to depression buy bactrim 480mg online. Although there appears to be a correlation between marijuana and depression order bactrim 480 mg without prescription, no studies have yet shown marijuana causes depression 960 mg bactrim for sale. However, high doses of marijuana have been linked to worsening depression. A study in 2007 looked at the affect of a synthetic cannabinoid on depression. The study used a synthetic version ofdelta-9-tetrahydrocannanbinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana, and tested it on rats. This synthetic THC can be viewed as medical marijuana for depression. When the drug was given to the rats in high doses, it worsened depressive symptoms but at low doses it had antidepressant effects. The link between marijuana and depression then, appears to be dose dependant. Because low-dose marijuana appeared to improve depression, the researchers are hoping to develop a new drug similar to the idea of medical marijuana for depression. When some people use marijuana, they experience a relaxation and a reduction in anxiety symptoms. Some with anxiety disorders feel marijuana treats anxiety or panic attacks but medical evidence shows marijuana causes anxiety in new users, chronic users and during marijuana withdrawal. Additionally, when using marijuana, anxiety-coping skills can be difficult to learn and use. Because the "high" of marijuana causes anxiety to decrease for many people, those with anxiety disorders sometimes "self-medicate" their anxiety with marijuana. Then, users often increase their dose of marijuana to again decrease anxiety symptoms. Unfortunately, with increased dosescomes increased tolerance and the greater likelihood of marijuana addiction. Nearly 7% - 10% of regular marijuana users become dependent on marijuana. Those dependent on marijuana often feel anxiety during marijuana withdrawal, or periods of abstinence, regardless as to preexisting anxiety conditions. Marijuana highs can also produce extreme anxiety and paranoia. Marijuana is a preparation of the cannabis plant and cannabis-induced anxiety disorder is a recognized illness in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV) of mental illness. This marijuana-anxiety disorder can appear in new or chronic users of marijuana. Addressing the fact that marijuana causes anxiety, here are some criteria for a cannabis-induced anxiety disorder:Anxiety, panic attacks, obsessions or compulsionsMarijuana is also known to cause psychotic and delusional disorders which can worsen anxiety. Use of marijuana and anxiety are linked, as is withdrawal from marijuana and anxiety. Marijuana withdrawal can occur when marijuana tolerance is achieved or when a user abuses marijuana. While withdrawal symptoms vary from person to person, anxiety and marijuana withdrawal are closely linked. Anxiety-related marijuana withdrawal symptoms include: While being the most popular legal drug in North America, there are many short-term and long-term effects of alcohol. Some effects of alcohol can be seen as desirable, such as euphoria and increased self-confidence at lower amounts, or unpleasant - dizziness, vomiting and blurred vision at larger amounts. The effects of alcohol are felt more or less depending on circumstance and physiology. Women become intoxicated after drinking less alcohol than men, and consuming alcohol after a heavy meal will lessen the physical effects of alcohol. Consumed in moderation, the short-term effects of alcohol are typically safe and pleasant, in fact, one 12 ounce beer is known to increase sleep time and reduce awakening during the night. This beneficial physical effect of alcohol is not seen when more than one beer is consumed. The effects of alcohol when consumed in excess of one drink disrupts sleep cycles and causes daytime fatigue. The short-term effects of alcohol are dependent on how much alcohol is consumed, and thus how much alcohol is in the blood (the blood alcohol level). The effects of mild drinking (1 - 4 drinks depending on gender and size):Increased mood and possible euphoriaIncreased self-confidence, sociabilityShortened attention spanImpaired fine muscle coordinationMore negative effects of alcohol are seen in moderate to heavy drinking (5 - 12 drinks depending on gender and size):Impaired memory and comprehension, profound confusionBalance difficulty; unbalanced walk; staggeringBlurred vision; other senses impairedDizziness often associated with nausea ("the spins")Once more than 12 drinks are consumed, only the negative effects of alcohol are present:Lapses in and out of consciousnessVomiting (possibly life-threatening if done while unconscious)Respiratory depression (potentially life-threatening)Depressed reflexes (i. Consuming alcohol in larger than these quantities show the negative effects of alcohol. Long-term effects of heavy alcohol consumption can lead to brain shrinkage, dementia, alcoholism and even death. The long-term negative effects of alcohol include cancer; 3. The more alcohol is consumed, the more negative effects of alcohol are seen. Negative effects of alcohol include:Increased risk of heart failureLiver damage and multiple liver diseasesElectrolyte deficienciesLoss of sexual desire, impotenceMultiple types of cancerFetal alcohol syndrome in babies born to women who drank during pregnancyLearning how to deal with an alcoholic is something no one is taught in school. Denial is a term used to indicate the unwillingness or inability of a person to admit to some truth, in this case alcoholism. For example, an alcohol addict may vehemently disagree with concerns of those living with the alcoholic that he is drinking too much, in spite of the fact that he has been charged with driving under the influence of alcohol three times in one month. But denial is not just something seen in the alcoholic, denial is also common in those living with an alcoholic. One of the reasons alcoholics continue to function while drinking and stay in denial is because the family and friends refuse to admit to dealing with an alcoholic. Because there is stigma attached to the term "alcoholic," loved ones want to deny that they are living with an alcoholic. However, admitting to a problem is the only way to start dealing with an alcoholic. Admit that you are living with an alcoholic and that it is a problem. Clearly look at the behaviors, emotions and physical symptoms of the alcoholic. Admit that they are due to alcoholism and not another ailment. Do not deny the destructive actions of the alcoholic. Understand there is nothing you can do to stop alcoholic behaviors - alcoholism is a disease and not a character flaw or poor judgment on the part of the alcoholic. A huge amount of harm comes from living with an alcoholic.

buy 960mg bactrim otc

Parenting - The Irrational Vocation - why do people bother with parenting? The child bactrim 480 mg for sale, another provision of Narcissistic Supply 480mg bactrim sale. On Uniqueness - being unique and special is at the heart of narcissism Collective Narcissism - some cultures bactrim 480 mg lowest price, societies and human collectives are narcissistic The Psychology of Torture - the tortured bonds with the torturer and the aftermath is often worse than the harrowing experience The Myth of Mental Illness - Is mental health a myth perpetrated by self-interested industries? Most everything you want to know about abusers and emotional, verbal and psychological abuse. Getting Law Enforcement Authorities and the Police InvolvedGetting the Courts Involved - Restraining Orders and Peace BondsExtensive info on all types of personality disorders plus insight into the lives of people with different personality disorders. Loving your reflection, being a narcissist, leads to a life of misery and fear. Introduction: The Soul of a Narcissist, The State of the ArtThe Essay and some of the chapters contain professional terms. That seems to be such an instinctively true statement that we do not bother to examine it more thoroughly. In our daily lives - in love, in business, in other areas of life - we act on this premise. Some people explicitly state that they do not love themselves at all. Others confine their lack of self-love to certain traits, to their personal history, or to some of their behaviour patterns. Yet others feel content with who they are and with what they are doing. But one group of people seems distinct in its mental constitution - narcissists. According to the legend of Narcissus, this Greek boy fell in love with his own reflection in a pond. Presumably, this amply sums up the nature of his namesakes: narcissists. The mythological Narcissus was rejected by the nymph Echo and was punished by Nemesis, Consigned to pine away as he fell in love with his own reflection. Narcissists are punished by echoes and reflections of their problematic personalities up to this very day. There is a major difference between True Self and reflected-self. Loving your True Self is a healthy, adaptive and functional quality. One depends on the existence and availability of the reflection to produce the emotion of self-love. The absence of a "compass", an "objective and realistic yardstick", by which to judge the authenticity of the reflection. In other words, it is impossible to tell whether the reflection is true to reality - and, if so, to what extent. The popular misconception is that narcissists love themselves. He who loves only impressions is incapable of loving people, himself included. But the narcissist does possess the in-bred desire to love and to be loved. If he cannot love himself - he must love his reflection. Thus, driven by the insatiable urge to love (which we all possess), the narcissist is preoccupied with projecting a loveable image, albeit compatible with his self-image (the way he "sees" himself). The narcissist maintains this projected image and invests resources and energy in it, sometimes depleting him to the point of rendering him vulnerable to external threats. To a narcissist, love is interchangeable with other emotions, such as awe, respect, admiration, attention, or even being feared (collectively known as Narcissistic Supply). Thus, to him, a projected image, which provokes these reactions in others, is both "loveable and loved". The more successful this projected image (or series of successive images) is in generating Narcissistic Supply (NS) - the more the narcissist becomes divorced from his True Self and married to the image. I am not saying that the narcissist does not have a central nucleus of a "self". All I am saying is that he prefers his image - with which he identifies unreservedly - to his True Self. The narcissist, therefore, is not selfish - because his True Self is paralysed and subordinate. The narcissist is not attuned exclusively to his needs. On the contrary: he ignores them because many of them conflict with his ostensible omnipotence and omniscience. He does not put himself first - he puts his self last. He caters to the needs and wishes of everyone around him - because he craves their love and admiration. It is through their reactions that he acquires a sense of distinct self. In many ways he annuls himself - only to re-invent himself through the look of others. He is the person most insensitive to his true needs. The narcissist drains himself of mental energy in this process. This fact, as well as his inability to love human beings in their many dimensions and facets, ultimately transform him into a recluse. His soul is fortified and in the solace of this fortification he guards its territory jealously and fiercely. He protects what he perceives to constitute his independence. His convoluted mind comes up with the most elaborate contraptions in lieu of answers. Why should people indulge the narcissist, divert time and energy, give him attention, love and adulation? He feels that he deserves whatever he succeeds to extract from others and much more. Actually, he feels betrayed, discriminated against and underprivileged because he believes that he is not being treated fairly, that he should get more than he does. There is a discrepancy between his infinite certainty that his is a special status which renders him worthy of recurrent praise and adoration, replete with special benefits and prerogatives - and the actual state of his affairs. To the narcissist, this status of uniqueness is bestowed upon him not by virtue of his achievements, but merely because he exists. Herein lies a paradox, which haunts the narcissist: he derives his sense of uniqueness from the very fact that he exists and he derives his sense of existence from his belief that he is unique.