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By O. Vak. Mid-America Nazarene University. 2018.

The essence of separatism is that by separat- Feminism To speak of feminism in the context of ing from men safe 0.18 mg alesse, women are able to view themselves in a a set of overarching ideals that define a unified move- different context cheap alesse 0.18 mg with amex. It is more accurate to participating in various forms of temporary separation for speak of feminisms generic alesse 0.18mg with visa, which highlights the fact that iden- personal growth (e. Characteristic of any expanding movement, there are Marxist/socialist feminism is another branch that disagreements and overlap between feminists. Marxist/socialist does not mean to suggest that feminism is fragmented, feminists argue that women are oppressed, and attribute but rather to emphasize the diversity of feminist thought that oppression to the capitalist/private property system. They advocate the overthrow of the capitalist system Radical feminism is paramount among the many fla- as the ultimate way of ending womens oppression. Often characterized as femi- Radical feminism and its numerous branches pri- nisms unappealing element, radical feminism has been marily represent a movement focused on issues defined the creative engine generating the theoretical develop- by white women, rendering women of color invisible. Radical feminism was born out of the emerged a strong group of feminists of color who civil rights and peace movements of the late 1960s. Feminists of color maintain that womens oppression 264 Feminist Ethics must be considered in a broader context than just a actually encompasses greatly divergent views and myopic focus on sexism. In addition, a distinction has ented and in some circles is combined with Goddess been drawn between feminist and feminine ethics. Thus, parallels are often drawn between soci- care, compassion, and networks of communications. The etys oppression of women and its treatment of the ethic of care rejects the cognitive emphasis of other environment. By resisting patriarchal domination, approaches to ethical analysis and emphasizes the moral ecofeminists believe that they are also resisting the role of emotions. Beyond its tive approaches is criticized precisely because it fails to focus on socially conscious environmentalism, ecofem- recognize the attachment inherent in relationships. Feminist/feminine ethics accomplishes four tasks: Liberal feminism is a variety of feminism that works (a) the provision of an emphasis on the importance of within the structure of mainstream society to integrate women and their interests; (b) the provision of a focus women into that structure. It is basically a social justice on issues especially affecting women; (c) the reexami- movement that seeks equality for women and traces its nation of fundamental assumptions; and (d) the incor- roots back to the feminism of past centuries, such as the poration of feminist insights from other fields into the suffragist movement. Feminist medical ethics has been tion strategies of liberal feminists line up well with the assigned the responsibility of developing conceptual kinder and gentler beliefs of cultural feminists. However, models that will restructure the power associated with these methods have met with limited success. Although healing, to allow individuals to have the maximum liberal feminists are associated with some of the most pro- degree of control possible over their own health. For instance, while many ethicists approach the issue of abortion by weighing the Suggested Reading relative importance of preserving life or protecting auton- Cott, N. The consequences of the resulting narrow perspective are troublesome: (a) hypotheses are Feminist Ethics It cannot be said that there is one developed and research conducted without reference to feminist perspective on issues related to health and health sex or gender, although the frequency of various care. An ethic of care: Feminist and interdis- as male diseases, resulting in little research being con- ciplinary perspectives. Ethical and ducted on women with those diseases; (c) research legal issues of including women in clinical studies (Vol. Feminist approaches to bioethics: Theoretical reflec- tions and practical applications. Feminism and bioethics: Beyond reproduc- specifically exclude women from participation in specific tion. The one notable exception has been the inclu- and named in the early 1970s and is currently the lead- sion of women in contraceptive research. Genetic research has been of particular concern for Alcohol is directly responsible for up to 20% of cases of some feminist ethicists. Because of these concerns, at least need to be screened for alcohol use disorders. Surveys one ethicist has asserted that any ethical guidelines for estimate that 3. Several factors help determine the effect alcohol Suggested Reading will have on the fetus. Bloomington: Indiana University and immature liver, the fetus can stay drunk for 34 Press. Other associated facial features may be pre- are safe, the best advice is for women to completely sent, but are not sufficient to determine the presence of abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Microencephaly (small head circumference) is not a facial feature per se, but a central nervous system characteristic. Sex toys, including whips and other devices, should be cleaned properly in order Suggested Reading to avoid transmitting infections between individuals. Alcohol con- This is especially true if any blood, semen, or vaginal sumption among pregnant and childbearing-aged women fluid is involved. Identification of at-risk drinking and intervention with women of Suggested Reading childbearing age: A guide for primary-care providers. Approximately 60% of term has acquired a large repertoire of meanings and is women will experience some symptoms related to often associated with fashion, sexuality, and/or power. Single or multiple benign tumors In the context of eroticism, fetishism has been concep- may be present, or a woman may just note general tualized along a spectrum ranging from Level 1, at lumpiness in her breasts. Usually symptoms are worse which point there is only a slight preference for certain prior to menses, but they may occur during any part of types of sexual partners, sexual stimuli, or sexual activ- the cycle. Some fetishists are attracted to Fibrocystic changes are diagnosed primarily by his- both the involved body part and its covering, while tory and physical examination. Inanimate objects be part of fibrocystic changes, may be noted on breast that are frequently the object of desire include, for self-exam, or physical exam by a health care provider. An display of more masculine attributes, most people are between males and females, gender roles are able to produce such characteristics. Simply put, based on the anatomical differ- assertive leadership style may be viewed as masculine ence between men and women, each is prescribed in American culture, but many women corporate lead- varying and often stereotypical social roles that are rein- ers have adopted this leadership style. For gender displays are based on situational demands and example, a father may chastise his son for crying, judg- rewards challenges the assumption that gender is an ing such self-expression to be inappropriate for males. Postmodernist theorists go ing football or other contact sports (even if they show beyond the argument that gender roles are flexible and promise) because the muscle development and aggres- dynamic, instead arguing that gender is completely fluid siveness associated with these activities are selectively and unrelated to stable aspects of the self, including encouraged for males and discouraged for females. These theorists argue that gen- elaboration of gender role constructs is carried on into der is not intrinsic to women and men, but instead rep- adulthood, at which point men are assumed to be self- resents a performance. Sex role theory (see Femininity and Masculinity) suggests an innate or auto- matic process of integrating appropriate behaviors based on ones sex. Sex roles in con- arguments less scientifically driven and more deter- temporary American society. Gender roles are generally defined Complementing sex-specific attire, gender roles are as sex-based categories that specify appropriate rules of introduced to children by the division of labor practices conduct for males and females in a particular culture or modeled and assigned by their parents.

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These authors (15) also examined the vaccination is environmental control in the barn that impact that non-uniform vaccination (e purchase 0.18 mg alesse fast delivery. Consequently cheap 0.18mg alesse visa, environment more time and oocyst cycling may be needed for and management can influence the infectivity purchase alesse 0.18 mg with amex, birds missed during initial vaccination. However, a tiered caging system reduces but does not eliminate oocyst cycling (17) Environmental control in the barn can be and coccidiosis outbreaks, sometimes preceding or separated into the atmospheric and the physical barn concurrent with necrotic enteritis, have been reported environments (12) and both contribute to the oocyst in stressed birds throughout pullet rearing (17) such becoming infective and cycling. For pullets and layers housed on factors required for the oocyst to become infective, mesh floors, achieving and maintaining low-level such as oxygen access, temperature and relative oocyst cycling following live coccidiosis vaccination humidity. Several cage floor coverage modifications were Decreased relative humidity during periods critical tested for their ability to enhance within-cage oocyst for oocyst cycling can negatively impact live cycling and improve vaccine efficacy (20-22). Further experiments tested if 40% housing and management of poultry to permit low- cage floor coverage could enhance cycling and level oocyst transmission. Each poultry barn has the vaccine efficacy with non-uniform vaccine dosing potential to provide an environment suitable for the (by gavaging subsets of pullets or by using spray oocyst to become infective and the chickens to ingest vaccination). However, not all poultry barns increased within-cage oocyst cycling (as measured by provide equal availability and duration of availability oocyst shedding) and significantly enhanced vaccine of infective oocysts for the housed chickens. Collectively, this housed on litter because this environment promotes research demonstrated that live Eimeria vaccines can fecal-oral transmission (6, 13-14). University Park and maintaining barn environments (adequate Press, Baltimore, Maryland. Each of these systems provides new oocyst shedding and sporulation in two challenges for intestinal health, especially immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima, coccidiosis. Intercurrent coccidiosis and coccidiosis vaccination must be further investigated necrotic enteritis of chickens: Rational, integrated to better prepare for these industry changes. Success and failure: The role of relative humidity Understanding the parasite lifecycle, levels and environmental management in live transmission dynamics and oocyst cycling in Eimeria vaccination of cage-reared replacement layer different housing systems following live coccidiosis pullets. In: The Coccidia: Eimeria, immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria th 204 65 Western Poultry Disease Conference 2016 maxima and E. In: practical poultry management method to enhance the Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production, 5th effect of live Eimeria vaccination for conventionally ed. Live Eimeria vaccination success in the In: 117th Annual Meeting of the United States face of artificial non-uniform vaccine administration Animal Health Association. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) Control of coccidiosis in caged egg layers: A paper on live performance of broiler chickens given an plate vaccination method. Although grown in the presence of 200 M of each compounds commercially available vaccine (Poulvac E. Culture + vaccine does not provide complete protection and supernatants from the V. The luxS gene functions Small molecules can be customized to target a in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia pathogens unique features without exerting toxic coli. In a previous study it was showed that that deletion of the luxS gene decreased the virulence of th 206 65 Western Poultry Disease Conference 2016 2. Precision in defining requirements involves accuracy at both The poultry industry has advanced remarkably these levels. In particular, poultry meat various classes of poultry are now available and these production has undoubtedly been the most successful developments are made possible largely because of of any animal industry. Production standards of increasing uniformity of genotypes, housing and broilers and layers have continually improved over husbandry practices in the poultry industry. Genetic selection brought about by most recent publication on poultry was in 1994 and commercial breeding companies is responsible for now 22 years old, which is a long period given the bulk (85% to 90%) of the improvements in broiler genetic advances that have made in both broilers and growth and advances in nutritional management have layers over this period. Defining the requirements for the ten over the past 50 years is a daunting task and beyond essential amino acids poses considerable degree of the scope of this presentation. In this paper, the key difficulty, but has been made easier by the acceptance advances in poultry nutrition will be discussed. Like other nutrients, the overall target is feeding to lower costs and maximize requirements for amino acids are influenced by economic efficiency. However, most industry are multiple and include expectations from changes in amino acid requirements do not lead to the consumers and policy makers. The relevance of changes in the relative proportion of the different issues relating to consumer concerns will be amino acids. Thus the actual changes in amino acid discussed briefly and their importance recognised, as requirements can be expressed in relation to a the society is becoming increasingly concerned about balanced protein or ideal protein. This approach has now challenge in defining the nutrient needs is the fact become an accepted practice in the industry to set the that they are influenced by a number of factors and amino acid specifications in feed formulations are subject to constant changes. Nutrient Defining nutrient composition and ingredient requirements are influenced by two main factors, quality. The principal role of feed ingredients is to namely bird-related factors (genetics, sex and, type provide the nutrients that can be digested and utilized and stage of production) and external factors (thermal for productive functions by the bird. Over the years, th 208 65 Western Poultry Disease Conference 2016 enormous volume of data has been generated and number of arithmetical calculations are needed to compiled on the nutrient composition of raw produce a least-cost diet. The variability that is inherent to each raw Over the years, feed formulation has evolved material is also recognized and such variability places from a simple balancing of few feedstuffs for limited pressure on precise feed formulations. Data on number of nutrients to computer-aided linear variation (or matrixes) are available for the main feed programming systems. Currently newer systems of ingredients and applied in feed formulation packages stochastic non-linear program are becoming popular to achieve better precision. A related development is with the commercial availability of this formulation the availability of rapid tests, such as the near software. However, not all of the nutrients in ingredients A related development is the use of growth are available for production purposes and a portion of models to simulate feed intake and production nutrients are excreted undigested or not utilized. In the case of amino acids, a recent provide economic analysis of alternative feeding development had been the wider use of digestible regimens. It must be noted, however, the models are amino acid concentrations, rather than total amino only as good as the data sets used to develop them. Feed additives are products use of digestible amino acids is particularly relevant used in animal nutrition for purposes of improving to situations where diet formulations consist of a the quality of feed and the quality of food from range of poorly digestible ingredients. Formulating animal origin, or to improve the animals diets based on digestible amino acids makes it performance and health, e. In effect, this In-feed antibiotics have been thus far the most approach improves the precision of formulation, may effective and successful additive used by the poultry lower feed cost and ensures more predictable bird industry. However, the critical issue because of the importance of energy to recent mandatory or voluntary removal of in-feed bird performance and diet cost. Today, the needs using combinations of ingredients and use of these enzymes in wheat and barley-based supplements. The use of another enzyme, balanced diet that will provide appropriate quantities microbial phytase, in poultry diets is on the increase, of available nutrients at least cost. Given the range of in response to concerns over phosphorus pollution possible ingredients and nutrients involved, a large from effluents from intensive animal operations. The availability of crystalline/synthetic amino Future directions in poultry nutrition will be acids is another notable development, and this driven by on-going changes in world animal additive has enabled the nutritionists to more agriculture and by societal issues. Sometime in the precisely meet the ideal amino acid profile and to future, we may have to modify feed formulations to improve the performance and yield of high-producing accommodate not only science-based needs but also modern birds. The ban in the European Union and different lowered the risk of compromised bird productivity.

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Sit on N pole of strong magnet (1000 to 5000 gauss) for 30 minutes daily (see page 170) generic alesse 0.18mg visa. Take another third of your vitamix generic alesse 0.18 mg overnight delivery, 15 drops hydrochloric acid on your food discount alesse 0.18 mg on line, 2 Tbs. Add the final third of your vitamix, 15 drops hydrochloric acid on your food, 2 Tbs. Amino acids, both essential and nonessential (see Sources), two teaspoons total (6 size 00 capsules), three times a day. A pint of chicken soup with 2 gm vitamin C, another third of your vitamix, 15 drops hy- drochloric acid on your food, 2 Tbs. Rinse in bleach water (dental bleach is fine) to destroy aflatoxin and zearalenone. Supper Take 10 drops phytic acid in cup water, then take 20 drops oregano oil; then take 2 gm vitamin C. Done With The First Week You have now cleared your body tissues and body fat of parasites, bacteria, metals and carcinogens. If you have been using the Topical Tumor Shrinker (for tumors close to the surface) you may have seen these shrink already. This is fortunate since the vital organs need spe- cial protection from the tumor contents. We will next begin to drain the tumors, killing and detoxi- fying everything that emerges. We will start with a high dose, 12 gm, of riboflavin (vitamin B2) which will saturate the tissue around the tumor. Aflatoxin, zearalenone and benzene are set free; asbestos and heavy metals are set free; carcinogenic plasticizers and dyes are now free; silicone from old toothpaste and duster spray is set free; acrylic acid and acrolein are set free; the malonates are now free; flukes and Ascaris are set free. There must be enough ozonated water to combine with all the metals and enough ozonated oil to kill whatever viruses escape. Finally, there must be enough magnetic power to attract the lanthanides and the iron. Pancre- atin and lipase arrive to digest both the protein portion and the acrolein fat residue remaining. Meanwhile, the more urine is produced, the faster asbestos, silicone and urethane leave the body. If no more asbestos or dyes are eaten, you can unload one tumor-full in two to three days. Released copper, phenanthroline, and toxic germanium will lower blood iron so not enough can reach the bone marrow. So the benefit of shrinking a tumor turns into a disadvantage to your white blood cells, liver, and other vital or- gans who must carry the burden. Fortunately the white blood cells are regaining their power to help by eating everything again. Yet the bladder will keep them tightly stuck, allowing them to circulate back into the body unless a large amount of urine is produced. The next week you must drink enough beverages to produce one gallon of urine in 24 hours. Day 8 To make it easier to take these special high doses this week 1 you may reduce your Day 7 vitamix to /3 (or one meal only). This protects the liver from the coming afla- toxin flood which then avoids a bilirubin rise. This chelates the heavy metals for excretion, be- fore they can get stuck in another tissue. Vitamin B2, 40 capsules (12 gm) stirred into honey or maple syrup (sterilized) and taken in a single dose. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 25,000 units daily, to soften tumors by removing their calcium deposits. Take 40 500 mg capsules of glutathione (only 20 capsules on days 15-21) stirred into a beverage. Breakfast Take 10 drops phytic acid in cup water, then take 20 drops oregano oil, then take 2 gm vitamin C. Midmorning Take 40 300 mg capsules of vitamin B2, stirred into honey or sterilized maple syrup (only 20 capsules on days 15-21). Prepare the kidney (1 cups) and liver (2 cups) herb con- coctions to sip throughout the day. Day 9 Clear the toxins that emerged from your tumors yesterday using a low dose of glutathione and vitamin B2. Coenzyme Q10 remains at a high dose to continue catching dyes and other toxins being released from tumors. Take 10 500 mg capsules of glutathione stirred into honey (20 capsules on days 15-21). If you had less than one gallon, drink more liquids today and continue collecting. If you had more than one gallon, con- tinue to drink as much liquids and you can stop collecting urine. Continue to alternate high dose and low dose vitamin B2 and glutathione treatments. This is a compromise between high and low doses in order to accomplish some of each. If you were using the Topical Tumor Shrinkers, and you took last week off (because of hypervitaminosis A) you may be ready to resume (including oral vitamin A). If you have 4 or 5 large tumors, chances are they will open one at a time; this is an advantage. This will not happen unless even small leftover bits of dyes, asbestos, inorganic germanium and lanthanides have left the body. You should also assume you are reinfect- ing with parasites from raw unsterilized food. Find a dentist using digital X-rays to be sure there is no leftover plastic or a tattoo. If your mouth has the odor of decay, water pick for a whole day, one half hour on and one half hour off. Stop using any herb or spice or supplement from a can or bottle unless it is treated with vitamin B2 and hydrochloric acid. Of course, you have been reinfecting from your own draining tumors, too, which is unavoidable. Continue the high-dose, low-dose alternating regimen for vitamin B2 and glutathione during the third week if the scan still shows the original tumors. Continued Care If symptoms have subsided and the scan and blood test show improvement, continue the supplements at a reduced level of your own choosing. Gaining weight is the single mysterious event your body can accomplish if it is well.

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Because of limited access to Iberian lynxes the less endangered Eurasian lynx and the bobcat were included as a surrogate species in this comparative study order 0.18 mg alesse otc. We examined morphological and functional parameters of the male reproductive organs prior to 0.18mg alesse mastercard, during and after the breeding season in adult captive Eurasian lynxes (n=3) generic 0.18mg alesse amex. Size and morphology of the reproductive tract was monitored by transcutaneous (testes) and transrectal (accessory sex glands) ultrasonography. Captive (n=7; 4 adult and 3 juvenile animals) and free ranging (n=4 adult animals) male Iberian lynxes were available for ultrasound examination out of breeding season (late November/early December). Testes and prostate of Eurasian lynx showed seasonal-related changes in size and texture. The highest testosterone concentrations were found in February (1240 393 ng/g feces). Mean testosterone3 3 concentration measured in blood serum was higher in the Iberian lynx (0. In female Eurasian and Iberian lynxes and in bobcats, transrectal ultrasonography was implemented to visualize ovarian structures (follicles, corpora lutea) and to assess ovarian activity in addition to analysis of serum progesterone and estradiol. The presence of active corpora lutea during the non breeding season was confrmed by ultrasonography and by elevated serum levels of progesterone averaging 3. The ultasonographical fndings on the ovarian structure suggests strongly that corpora lutea developed after ovulation stay active at least until November and regress before the onset of the next estrus. Qu e v e d o a n d kata r I n a Je w g e n o w Ultrasonographical assessment of structure and function of the male and female reproductive organs in the Eurasian and the Iberian lynx Fr a n k g r I t z, as t r Id va r g a s, Fe r n a n d o ma r t n e z, th o m a s b. In recent studies on Eurasian lynx we have shown that male reproduction is seasonal corresponding to the female estrus (Jewgenow et al. Fecal testosterone concentration, volume of ejaculates, percentages of motile spermatozoa and intact sperm were maximized during the breeding season in February/March (Gritz et al. In several felid species, pregnancy diagnosis based on faecal hormone metabolites A became almost a routine procedure. However, it has been shown that progesterone 369 metabolites in lynxes did not follow the typical pregnancy pattern and made pregnancy diagnosis unattainable by faecal sampling (Jewgenow et al. Surprisingly, progesterone measurement suggestive of luteal activity was also detected after the weaning of cubs (Gritz et al. Because information on reproductive physiology in lynxes is limited, our recent studies focused on implementation of transrectal ultrasonography to assess their reproductive health and to monitor ovarian and testicular activity of the two sister taxa: the Iberian and Eurasian lynx. Due to limited access to the endangered Iberian lynx, where frequent examinations were not possible, Eurasian lynx and bobcats were also examined for comparative purposes. Almost all females from the breeding centers were examined in late October 2006 (n=10) and late november 2007 (n=18). Additionally, seven males and six females captured from the free ranging populations in Doana national Park were also examined to assess their health and reproductive status in late november/early December 2006. Eurasian females were examined in June 2002/2005 (n=11), July (n=7) and november 2003 (n=3). In addition, males were examined prior to (november), during (March) and after (April and June) breeding season between 2002 and 2004. Examined bobcats (Bc) were kept in Russia at the same station (n=1 female, June 2007) and at the Jerez Zoo in Spain (n=3 females, november 2007). Mating was observed, either by direct observation (in Russia) or by 24 hours surveillance using remote controlled camera systems (in Spain). In the Iberian lynxes and bobcats we used 50 g/kg medetomidine (Domitor, Pfzer, Karlsruhe, Germany) and 5 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride (Imalgene 1000). The entire genital tract of each female was examined from caudad to craniad by transrectal ultrasonography in lateral recumbency (Gritz et al. The transducer was ftted with of two specifc adaptors (15 and 25 cm in lengths, A. Schnorrenberg chirurgiemechanik, Schnwalde, Germany) and introduced into the rectum using ultrasound gel. The dimensions of the ovaries were measured using a calliper system integrated into the ultrasound machine and their volume calculated as that of a simple spheroid (Gritz et al. The diameter of the smallest and largest corpus luteum (cl) was measured and the mean volume of total luteal tissue (mm ) calculated per animal (V=4/3 * mean cl radius * number of cll). In males, ultrasonography of testes and accessory glands was performed as described before (Gritz et al. Accessory glands (prostate) were visualized transrectally and the testes and epididymis by transcutaneous ultrasound using a handheld 7. The volume of the prostate and testes were calculated according to the volume of a simple rotation ellipsoid (V=1/6 * length * height * width) accommodating the spherical and symmetrical shape of these organs. The bugs were placed into cork plates, which were installed at the lynxes preferable resting sites. The obtained serum (syringe collection during anesthesia) and plasma (bug ingested blood) samples were kept frozen until hormone assessment. Progesterone, estradiol (females) and testosterone (males) were measured in the blood serum or plasma by enzyme immunoassays with double antibody technique (Meyer et al. Relationship between volume of luteal tissue and progesterone concentration in blood serum was determined by Spearman correlation. Qu e v e d o a n d kata r I n a Je w g e n o w (a) (b) (c) (d) 371 Fi g u r e 1. So n o g r a m S o F teStiS (a a n d c) a n d p r o S t a t e (b a n d d) o F a S i n g l e m a l e eu r a S i a n ly n x d u r i n g t h e breeding S e a S o n (ma r c h ; a a n d b) a n d o u t o F breeding S e a S o n (november; c a n d d). In all lynx species, sonomorphology of urogenital tracts was similar to other carnivores (Gritz et al. In male Eurasian lynx, seasonal fuctuation of male reproductive organs was evident. They were most active in March and June, while in April and in november they appeared inactive. Seasonal changes were most pronounced in the testes, with a maximum and minimum volume of 2. These fndings are in agreement with our recent results on steroid hormone metabolite concentrations measured in faeces and urine (Jewgenow et al. To our knowledge, the existence of elevated progesterone during lactation and presumably active corpora lutea throughout much of the year is unique for felid species. The existence of large corpora lutea and increased volume of luteal tissue several months after parturition detected by ultrasound examination (Table 1) allows us to assume that progesterone is of luteal origin, although additional studies are required to confrm that the source is ovarian and not adrenal. The low but steady progesterone concentration may function to induce a negative feed back to inactivate folliculogenesis. That would represent a mechanism to turn the normally polyoestric cycle seen in most felids into in a monoestric cycle in the lynx and thus contribute to the seasonality of its breeding pattern so as to match the seasonal sperm production in the males (Gritz et al. The apparent correlation between estrogen and progesterone secretion suggested by current results may refect the important role of estrogens, which might help maintain progesterone receptors and sensitivity for progesterone. Qu e v e d o a n d kata r I n a Je w g e n o w sPecIes age class Recent bReedIng mean (sd) mean (sd) no.