By C. Tarok. Florida International University. 2018.
Thus purchase midamor 45mg line, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant active principle isolated from Thea sinensis Linn discount midamor 45 mg fast delivery. The isolated compounds were identified by melting point buy 45mg midamor fast delivery, optical rotation, Thin Layer chromatographic. Ultra violet spectroscopic, Fourier transforms infrared 1 spectroscopic, Mass spectroscopic and H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic methods. Percent inhibition of autoxidative activity of caffeine, catechin and epicatechin were 78. Thus, it was concluded that caffeine, catechin and epicatechin were antioxidative active principle and catechin was the most potent natural antioxidant. The positive control and negative control used in this study being cimetidine (200mg/kg) and water respectively. The ulcerogenic agent, aspirin as well as the test and control materials were administered by oral route to the test subjects in accordance with the study schedule. The plan of the study comprised two parts, the protective effect and healing effect on aspirin-induced gastric ulcerations. The rats were fasted for 48hour after the last does of extract, 600mg/kg body weight of aspirin was given by oral route as an ulcerogenic agent. After leaving for 4hours which was the time required producing proper gastric ulcerations, the animals were sacrificed and stomachs were opened cut along greater curvature to examine by using magnifying glass. Ulcers were measured using different parameters such as total length, numbers of ulcers and numbers of haemorrhagas. Significant effect of the extract on the ulcers regarding above parameters was observed. The procedures as above were repeated for positive and negative control agents-cimetidine and water. The anti-peptic ulcer activity of extract was comparable to that of standard drug, cimetidine. For the healing effect of extract on aspirin- induced gastric ulcerations in rats, only the dose of extract, found to be optimal in the first part, was selected and employed. It was different for the first as the extract was given after the gastric ulcers had been induced by the ulcerogenic agent, aspirin. The extract was given two times, the first after 4hours and the second; 20hours after aspirin had been administered. As before, cimetidine (200gm/kg) and water used as the positive and negative controls. The plant extract was found to have significant anti-peptic ulcer activity as in the previous part of the study. Consequently, the results in the first part seggested the protective effect and that in the second part suggested the healing effect of the plant extract on the peptic ulcerations induced by aspirin. This protective or healing effect is reflected by whether the extract was given prior to after the administration of the ulcerogenic agent, aspirin. The present study was done to evaluate the anti- peptic ulcer activity of ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. The phytochemical analysis was done for both ethanolic extract and dried powder of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. The ethanolic extract and dried powder contained glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloid, steroids/triterpene, polyphenol, tanninoids, saponin and reducing sugar. The anti-peptic ulcer effect of extract was studied on albino rats of both sexes weighing 180 to 200gm. Aspirin was used as ulcerogenic agent and ranitidine was used as positive control drug. Group 3 to Group 6 served as extract treated group, which received four different doses of extract 0. One hour after giving the test agents, 600mg/kg body weight of aspirin was given as ulcerogenic agent. The different parameters such as total number of ulcers, total length of ulcers and number of hemorrhages were measured. It was found that increasing dose of the extract caused increasing protective effect. The difference from the study of protective effect was that the same dose of ulcerogenic agent aspirin was given first to all groups. The operative procedure, measured parameters and measuring methods were same as the first part of the study. In conclusion, this study proved scientifically that 95% ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. Mu Mu Sein Myint; Kyin Hla Aye; Ye Htut; May Aye Than; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Than Than Lwin; Phyu Phyu Win; Thin Thin Aye. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-plasmodial effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Ocimum sanctum is known its reputed hypoglycemic, antiasthmatic, antimalarial, antiptretic, antiviral antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis, acute toxicity, test of leaf power, aqueous and 50% ethanol of O. Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, amino acid, polyphenol, reducing sugar, saponin and protein were present in all three tested samples. Screening of aqueous and 50% ethanol extracts for anti-plasmodial effect on Plasmodium bergheii infected mice model was done. The test doses for suppressive effect of both extracts were 6, 9 and 12gm/kg body weight. The result were expressed in terms of percent parasite extracts of 6, 9 and 12gm/kg body weight were 7. In the therapeutic test, the results were expressed in terms of percent parasite suppression on day 7. Therefore, it was concluded that 50% ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves showed mild anti-plasmodial effect. Khin Chit; Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Thongsoi, Jirapan; Thaw Zin; Khine Khine Lwin; Khin Hnin Pwint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Nilar Aung. This study was aimed to identify the antiproliferative and antioxidant activities (in vitro) of 9 Myanmar medicinal plant extracts such as Azadirachta indica A. The results of this preliminary study indicated a potential role of medicinal plants in ovarian cancer therapy. However in vitro and in vivo studies using active compounds from these plants should be continued to evaluate efficacy and safety. Each of these drugs is a mixture of many ingredients of both plant and animal orgin. Anti-tuberculous activities and chemical investigation of Myanmar traditional medicine used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The traditional medicine and its individual constituents were successively extracted with solvents of different polarity.
Gene therapy can involve either the deliv- ery of whole generic midamor 45mg without prescription, active genes (gene transfer) or the blockade of native gene expression by the transfection of cells with short chains of nucleic acids known as oligonu- cleotides (Fig generic midamor 45mg with amex. The gene transfer approach allows for replacement of a missing or defective gene or for the overexpression of a native or foreign protein midamor 45mg on line. The protein may be active only intracellularly, in which case very high gene transfer efﬁciency may be necessary to alter the overall function of an organ or tissue. Alternatively, proteins secreted by target cells may act on other cells in a paracrine or endocrine manner, in which case delivery to a small subpopulation of cells may yield a sufﬁcient therapeutic result. This approach attempts to alter cellular function by the inhibition of speciﬁc gene expression. Plasmid uptake and expression, however,has generally been achieved at reasonable levels only in skeletal and myocardial muscle. This ideal vector would also have the ﬂexibility to accommodate genes of all sizes, incorporate control of the temporal pattern and degree of gene expression, and to recognize speciﬁc cell types for tailored delivery or expression. While progress is being made on each of these fronts individually, gene therapy remains far from possessing a single vector with all of the desired characteristics. Instead,a spectrum of vectors has evolved,each of which may ﬁnd a niche in different early clinical gene therapy strategies. Recombinant, replication-deﬁcient retroviral vectors have been used extensively for gene transfer in cultured cardiovascular cells in vitro, where cell prolifera- tion can be manipulated easily. Their use in vivo has been more limited due to low transduction efﬁciencies, particularly in the cardiovascular system where most cells remain quiescent. While the risk may be low, safety monitoring will be an important aspect of clinical trials using viral vectors. Recent improvements in packaging systems (particularly the develop- ment of “pseudotyped” retroviral vectors incorporate vesicular stomatitis virus G- protein) have improved the stability of retroviral particles and facilitated their use in a wider spectrum of target cells. Recombinant adenoviruses have become the most widely used viral vectors for experimental in vivo cardiovascular gene transfer. Adenoviruses infect nondividing cells and generally do not integrate into the host genome. These vectors can there- fore achieve relatively efﬁcient gene transfer in some quiescent cardiovascular cell types, but transgenes are generally lost when cells are stimulated into rounds of cell division. The immune response to adenoviral antigens represents the greatest limi- tation to their use in gene therapy. Conventional vectors have generally achieved gene expression for only 1 to 2 weeks after infection. It is not certain to what extent the destruction of infected cells contributes to the termination of transgene expres- sion given that the suppression of episomal transgene promoters appears to occur as well. In the vasculature, physical barriers such as the internal elastic lamina appar- ently limits infection to the endothelium, with gene transfer to the media and adven- titia only occurring after injury has disrupted the vessel architecture. The development of effective methods of nonviral transfection in vivo has posed a signiﬁcant challenge to cardiovascular and other clinical researchers. Lipid-based gene transfer methods are easier to prepare and have greater ﬂexibility in terms of substituting transgene constructs than the relatively complex recombinant viral vector processes. In addition, the controlled application of a pressurized environment to vascular tissue in a nondistended manner has recently been found to enhance oligonucleotide uptake and nuclear localization. This method may be particularly useful for ex vivo applications such as vein grafting or transplantation and may represent a means of enhancing plasmid gene delivery. Controlling Gene Expression in Cardiovascular Tissue In addition to effective gene delivery, many therapeutic settings will demand some degree of control over the duration, location, and degree of transgene expression. To this end, researchers have developed early gene promoter systems that allow the clinician to regulate the spatial or temporal pattern of gene expression. These systems include tissue-speciﬁc promoters that have been isolated from genetic sequences encoding proteins with natural restriction to the target tissue, such as the von Willebrand factor promoter in endothelial cells and the a-myosin heavy-chain promoter in myocarium. Promoters have also been isolated from nonmammalian systems that can either promote or inhibit downstream gene expression in the pres- ence of a pharmacologic agent such as tetracycline, zinc, or steroids. In addition, reg- ulation of transgene expression may even be relegated to the physiologic conditions, with the incorporation of promoters, enhancers, or other regulatory elements that respond to developmental stages or speciﬁc conditions such as hypoxia or increased oxidative stress. It severely limits the durability of these procedures for patients with atherosclerotic occlusive diseases. In the case of balloon angioplasty, restenosis occurs in approximately 30 to 40% of treated coronary lesions and 30 to 50% of superﬁcial femoral artery lesions within the ﬁrst year. Intravascular stents reduce the restenosis rates in some settings, however, the incidence remains signiﬁcant and long-term data are limited. Despite impressive technological advances in the development of minimally invasive and endovascular approaches to treat arterial occlusions, the full beneﬁt of these gains awaits the resolution of this fundamental biologic problem. Although it is now thought that remodeling may account for the majority of late lumen loss after balloon dilation of atherosclerotic vessels, proliferation has been the predominant target of experimental genetic interventions. Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Approaches There have been two general approaches—cytostatic, in which cells are prevented from progressing through the cell cycle to mitosis, and cytotoxic, in which cell death is induced. A group of molecules known as cell cycle regulatory proteins act at dif- ferent points along the cell cycle (see Chapter 10), mediating progression toward division. To support this hypothesis, near complete inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia after carotid balloon injury has been demonstrated. Arrest of the cell cycle via antisense blockade of either of two proto-oncogenes, c-myb or c-myc, has been found to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in models of arterial balloon injury. The activity of a number of cell cycle regulatory genes is inﬂuenced by a single transcription factor known as E2F. In quiescent cells, E2F is bound to a complex of other proteins, including a protein known as the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product. In pro- liferating cells, E2F is released, resulting in cell cycle gene activation. A transcrip- tion factor decoy bearing the consensus binding sequence recognized by E2F can be employed as a means to inhibit cellular proliferation. Alternatively, the approach of localized arterial in- fection with a replication-defective adenovirus encoding a nonphosphorylatable, constitutively active form of Rb at the time of balloon angioplasty has been studied. This approach signiﬁcantly reduces smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation in both the rat carotid and porcine femoral artery models of restenosis. Similar results were also obtained by adenovirus-mediated overexpression, a natural inhibitor of cell cycle progression, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p2l. In addition to blockade of cell cycle gene expression, interruption of mitogenic signal transduction has been achieved in experimental models as well. For example, Ras proteins are key trans- ducers of mitogenic signals from membrane to nucleus in many cell types. Nitric oxide mediates a number of biologic processes that are thought to mitigate neointima formation in the vessel wall. Results revealed expression of the transgene in the vessel wall, along with improved vasomotor reactivity and a 70% inhibition of neointima formation (Fig. After one course of gancyclovir treatment, neointimal hyperplasia decreased by about 50% in that model system. It has been clearly established, in a number of animal models, that angiogenic factors can stimulate the growth of capillary networks in vivo. But, it is less certain that these molecules can induce the development of larger, more complex vessels in adult tissues needed for carrying signiﬁcantly increased bulk blood ﬂow.
The dosage of a commercial probiotic supplement containing lactobacillus or biﬁdobacteria cultures is based on the number of live organisms purchase midamor 45mg visa. A dosage of 5 billion to 10 billion viable cells per day is sufﬁcient for most people order 45mg midamor visa. Natural Antiyeast Agents A number of natural agents have proven activity against C generic midamor 45 mg with visa. As we have noted, however, rather than relying on these agents as a primary therapy, it is important to address the underlying factors that predispose to chronic candidiasis. The four approaches we feel most comfortable in recommending as natural agents against C. Use of any effective antiyeast therapy alone, without the other supportive measures we recommend, may result in a Herxheimer reaction (die-off). When an antiyeast agent rapidly kills off the candida, the body must deal with large quantities of yeast toxins, cell particles, and antigens, and symptoms may worsen. The Herxheimer reaction can be minimized by the following measures: • Following the dietary recommendations for a minimum of two weeks before taking an antiyeast agent • Supporting the liver by following the recommendations made earlier • Starting any of the previously described antiyeast medications in low doses and gradually increasing the dose over the course of one month to achieve full therapeutic value Berberine-Containing Plants Berberine-containing plants include goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), and goldthread (Coptis chinensis). Berberine, an alkaloid, has been extensively studied in both experimental and clinical settings for its antibiotic activity. Berberine exhibits a broad spectrum of antibiotic activity, having shown activity against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, including C. For goldenseal, the dosage would be: • Dried root or as infusion (tea), 2 to 4 g three times a day • Tincture (1:5), 6 to 12 ml (1. Modern clinical use of garlic features the use of commercial enteric-coated preparations designed to offer the beneﬁts of garlic without the odor (the allicin is released in the small and large intestine). The treatment of chronic candidiasis requires a daily dose of at least 10 mg allicin or a total allicin potential of 4,000 mg. Going beyond this dosage, even with these odorless preparations, usually results in a detectable odor of garlic. Enteric-Coated Volatile Oils Volatile oils from oregano, thyme, peppermint, and rosemary are all effective antifungal agents. One study with oregano oil showed the minimum inhibitory concentration was less than 0. Because volatile oils are quickly absorbed and may induce heartburn, an enteric coating is recommended to ensure delivery to the small and large intestine. Nutritional Supplements Tea Tree Oil Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil is another option, especially in the topical treatment of candida infections such as thrush or vaginal yeast infection. Overall, 60% of patients demonstrated a clinical response to this oral solution (seven patients cured and eight patients clinically improved). Propolis has antimicrobial activities that help the hive block out viruses, bacteria, and other organisms. Identify and address predisposing factors: Eliminate the use of antibiotics, steroids, immune-suppressing drugs, and birth control pills unless there is an absolute medical necessity. Follow a health care professional’s specific recommendations if the identifiable predisposing factor is diet, impaired immunity, impaired liver function, or an underlying disease state. Eliminate foods with a high content of yeast or mold, including alcoholic beverages, cheeses, dried fruits, melons, and peanuts. Get nutritional support by taking a high-potency multiple vitamin and mineral formula. Avoid alcohol, sugar, smoking, and elevated cholesterol levels, which can impair immune system function. To support thymus gland function, take 750 mg crude polypeptide fractions per day. Promote detoxification and elimination: Consume 3 to 5 g water-soluble fiber from sources such as guar gum, psyllium seed, or pectin at night. Take probiotics: 5 to 10 billion viable lactobacillus and bifidobacteria cells per day. Use appropriate antiyeast therapy: Ideally, take the recommended nutritional or herbal supplements, or both, to help control yeast overgrowth and promote healthful bacterial flora. If a patient follows these guidelines and fails to achieve signiﬁcant improvement or complete resolution, further evaluation is necessary to determine if chronic candidiasis is in fact the issue. If the organism has not been eradicated, stronger prescription antibiotics can be used, along with the other general recommendations. Canker Sores • Single or clustered shallow, painful ulcers found anywhere in the oral cavity • Ulcerations usually resolve in 7 to 21 days but are recurrent in many people Canker sores (the medical term is aphthous stomatitis) are quite common, but in 20% of the U. Although the lesions generally heal on their own, some individuals seem to have canker sores all the time. Causes Local chemical or physical trauma often initiates ulcers in susceptible individuals. The oral cavity is obviously the ﬁrst site of contact for ingested allergens and many inhaled ones. The sensitivity is not necessarily to a food; it can also be to a food additive or contact metal. Although a number of nutrient deﬁciencies can lead to canker sores, thiamine deﬁciency appears to be the most signiﬁcant. Food allergies, gluten sensitivity, and nutrient deﬁciency should all be addressed and corrected. After one month of zinc therapy, the sores were reduced and did not reappear for three months. Considerable evidence suggests that gluten sensitivity may be a contributing factor in some patients. Diet The diet should be free of known allergens and, if gluten sensitivity is present, all gluten sources. Otherwise, the guidelines in the chapter “A Health-Promoting Diet” are appropriate. Compression of this nerve causes weakness; pain in gripping; and burning, tingling, or aching that may radiate to the forearm and shoulder. It occurs most often in pregnant women, women taking oral contraceptives, menopausal women, or patients on hemodialysis due to kidney failure. Causes Any factor that causes the carpal tunnel to get smaller or its contents to swell can lead to carpal tunnel syndrome. To prevent permanent nerve damage, however, surgery should not be delayed beyond three years after ﬁrst onset of symptoms. Open carpal tunnel release surgery is one of the most commonly performed outpatient surgeries and is less expensive than the newer endoscopic procedures. A detailed review reported no difference in long-term results between the procedures, but pain is reduced the ﬁrst two weeks following the endoscopic surgery compared with open procedures. Specialized splints have not been proven more effective than a good-quality, well-fitted over-the-counter splint. Alternating hot and cold water treatment (contrast hydrotherapy) provides a simple, efﬁcient way to increase circulation to the area and reduce swelling. Immersion of the hand past the wrist in hot water for three minutes, followed by immersion in cold water for 30 seconds, repeated three to ﬁve times, will increase local circulation, thereby increasing local inﬂow of nutrients, increasing elimination of waste products, and decreasing pain. If B6 does not produce results within a few weeks, P5P should be tried at 10 mg per day.
When she was asked what she had been saying to herself order 45mg midamor free shipping, she revealed her aggressive purchase midamor 45 mg visa, positive attitude to the threat by saying midamor 45 mg low price, "I was wishing all the time that I could get twenty-five. If they cannot be con- trolled by a direct act of will, they can be controlled indirectly. If we cannot drive out a negative feeling by mak- ing a frontal assault upon it, we can accomplish the same result by substituting a positive feeling. Feeling coincides with, and is appropriate to, what our nervous system accepts as "real" or the "truth about environment. Instead, we should immediately concentrate upon positive imagery—upon filling the mind with wholesome, positive, desirable images, imaginations, and memories. If, on the other hand, we concentrate only upon "driv- ing out," or attacking worry thoughts, we necessarily must concentrate upon negatives. And even if we are suc- cessful in driving out one worry thought, a new one, or even several new ones, are likely to rush in—since the general mental atmosphere is still negative. Jesus warned us about sweeping the mind clean of one demon, only to have seven new ones move in, if we left the house empty. Matthew Chappell, a modern psychologist, recom- mends exactly the same thing in his book How to Control Worry (Matthew N. We are worriers because we practice worrying until we become adept at it, says Dr. We habitually indulge in negative imagery out of the past, and in anticipating the future. The worrier then makes an "effort" to stop worrying, and is caught in a vicious cycle. In time worry will defeat itself because it becomes a stimulus for practicing anti- worrying. Chappell, is not to overcome some particular source of worry, but to change mental habits. As long as the mind is "set" or geared in a passive, defeatist, "I hope nothing happens" sort of attitude, there will always be something to worry about. Psychologist David Seabury says that the best piece of advice his father ever gave him was to practice positive mental imagery—immediately and "on cue," so to speak, whenever he became aware of negative feelings. Negative feelings literally defeated themselves by becoming a sort of "bell" which set off a conditioned reflex to arouse posi- tive states of mind. When I was a medical student I remember being called upon by the professor to orally answer questions on the subject of pathology. Yet, on other occasions, when I looked into the microscope at a slide and answered the typewritten questions before me, I was a different person. I was relaxed, and substituted that "winning feeling" for the negative feeling when quizzed orally. At the end of the semester I did very well in both oral and written examina- tions. The negative feeling had finally become a sort of "bell" which created a conditioned reflex to arouse that "win- ning feeling. Throughout twenty-five years of practice as a plastic surgeon I have operated on soldiers mutilated on the battlefield, children born with disfigurements, men, women, and children injured in accidents at home, on the highway and in industry. In giving them another chance at capturing that "win- ning feeling," I myself became skillful in the art of having that same feeling. All of us must do the same With our inner scars, our negative feelings, if we want to get more living out of life. The Choice Is Up to You Within you is a vast mental storehouse of past experi- ences and feelings—both failures and successes. Like in- active recordings on tape, these experiences and feelings are recorded on the neural engrams of your gray matter. There are recordings of stories with happy endings, and [recordings of stories with unhappy endings. Another interesting scientific finding about these en- grams is that they can be changed or modified, somewhat as a tape recording may be changed by "dubbing in" addi- tional material, or by replacing an old recording with a lew by recording over it. Eccles and Sherrington tell us that the engrams in the human brain tend to change slightly each time they are "played back. Also, each individual neuron may become a part of perhaps one hundred separate and distinct pat- terns—much as an individual tree in an orchard may form a part of a square, a rectangle, a triangle, or any number of larger squares, etc. The neuron in the original engram, of which it was a part, takes on some of the characteris- tics of subsequent engrams of which it becomes a part, and in so doing, changes somewhat the original engram. It gives us reason to believe that adverse and unhappy childhood ex- periences, "traumas. We now know that not only does the past influence the present, but that the present clearly influences the past. Because we did have unhappy childhood experiences and traumas which left engrams behind, does not mean that we are at the mercy of these engrams, or that our pat- terns of behavior are "set," predetermined and unchange- able. Our present thinking, our present mental habits, our attitudes toward past experiences, and our attitudes to- ward the future—all have an influence upon old recorded engrams. Old Recordings Can Be Changed Another interesting finding is that the more a given en- gram is activated, or "replayed," the more potent it be- comes. Eccles and Sherrington tell us that the permanence of engrams is derived from synaptic efficacy (the effi- ciency and ease of connections between the individual neurons that make up the chain) and further, that synaptic efficiency improves with use and diminishes with disuse. Here again, we have good scientific ground for forgetting and ignoring those unhappy experiences from the past and concentrating upon the happy and pleasant. These concepts have developed not from wild specula- tion, a weird mumbo-jumbo about mentally constructed straw men such as the "Id," "Super-Ego" and the like, but from sound scientific research into brain physiology. They go a long way toward restoring the dignity of man as a responsible child of God, able to cope with his past and plan his future, as opposed to the image of man as helpless, victim of his past experiences. No longer can you derive sickly comfort from blaming your parents, society, your early experiences, or the in- justices of "others" for your present troubles. Blaming them, or even yourself for the past mis- takes, however, will not solve your problem, or improve your present or your future. Like a broken phonograph, you can keep on play- ing the same old "broken record" of the past; reliving past injustices; pitying yourself for past mistakes; all of which reactivates failure patterns and failure feelings which color your present and your future. Or, if you choose, you can put on a new record, and reactivate success patterns and "that winning feeling" which help you do better in the present and promise a more enjoyable future. Use the same technique on the "music" that comes out of your own internal machine. But it is not only possible, but I believe practical, to draw certain conclusions and implications from what is already known. In this chapter I would like to tell you some of the things that I believe and which have been of practical value to me. William James once said that everyone, scientists in- cluded, develops his own "over-beliefs" concerning (known facts, which the facts themselves do not justify. As a practical measure, these "over-beliefs" are not only [permissible, but necessary. Our assumption of a future goal, which sometimes we cannot see, is what dictates our present actions, and our "practical conduct. Otherwise he would not have sailed at all—or having sailed, would not have known whether to set his course to the south, east, north or west.
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