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By N. Irmak. Assumption College.

Emptiness Is Not a "Way" That Wins The failure mechanism is self-perpetuating discount 15gm ketoconazole cream visa, unless we step in and break the vicious cycle 15gm ketoconazole cream with amex. Emptiness purchase 15gm ketoconazole cream with mastercard, when once experienced, can become a "way" of avoiding effort, work, and responsibility. If all is vanity, if there is no new thing under the sun, if there is no joy to be found anyway—why bother? All these intellectual "reasons" vanish, however, and we do expert ence joy and satisfaction, when once we get off the tread- mill, stop going around and around in circles, and select some goal worth striving for-—and go after it. Emptiness and an Inadequate Self-image Go Together Emptiness may also be the symptom of an inadequate self-image. It is impossible to psychologically accept something that you feel does not belong to you—or is not consistent with your self. His negative self-image may even spur such a person on to achievement by the well-known principle of over-compensation. But I do not subscribe to the theory that one should be proud of his inferiority complex, or thankful for it, because it sometimes leads to the ex- ternal symbols of success. When "success" finally comes such a person feels little sense of satisfaction or accom- plishment. To the world he is a success, He himself still feels inferior, undeserving, almost as if he was a thief and had stolen the "status symbols" which he thought were so important. This reaction is so common that psychiatrists refer to it as the "success syndrome"—the man who feels guilty, in- secure and anxious, when he realizes he has "succeeded. Striving for goals which are important to you, not as status symbols, but because they are consistent with your own deep inner wants, is healthful. Glance at Negatives, But Focus on Positives Automobiles come equipped with "negative indicators" placed directly in front of the driver, to tell you when the battery is not charging, when the engine is becoming too hot, when the oil pressure is becoming too low, etc. You merely stop at a service station or a garage, and take positive action to correct. However, the driver of the automobile does not look at the control panel exclusively and continuously. He must focus his gaze through the windshield, look where he is going, and keep his primary attention on his goal—where he wants to go. He quickly focuses his sight ahead of him again and concentrates on the positive goal of where he wants to go. How to Use Negative Thinking We should adopt a somewhat similar attitude about our own negative symptoms. Used correctly this type of "negative thinking" can work for us to lead us to success, if: (1) We are sensitive to the negative to the ex- tent that it can alert us to danger. Such practice will in time create a sort of automatic reflex which becomes a part of our inner guid- ance system. Negative feedback will act as a sort of auto- matic control, to help us "steer clear" of failure and guide us to success. If an ill-fitting shoe rubs against a sensitive part of your foot; the first result is pain and sensitiveness. But again, nature protects against further pain and injury by form- ing a callus, a protective shell. We are inclined to do very much the same thing when- ever we receive an emotional injury, when someone "hurts" us, or "rubs us the wrong way. We are very apt to become hardened of heart, callous toward the world, and to withdraw within a protective shell. In our modern society, however, scar tissue, es- pecially on the face, can work against us instead of for us. He was affable, personable, and well on his way to a successful career, when he had an automobile acci- dent which left him with a horrible scar from midway on his left cheek to the left corner of his mouth. Another cut, just over his right eye, pulled his upper eyelid up tightly when it healed, which gave him a grotesque "glar- ing" appearance. The scar on his cheek gave him a perpetual "leer," or what he called an "evil look. Was it only his imagination that even his own wife flinched slightly when he kissed her? The scar tissue on his face formed a tough protection against future automobile accidents. But the society in which George lived, physical injuries to his face were not the primary hazard. Had George been a primitive man and suffered facial scars from an encounter with a bear or a saber-toothed tiger, his scars would have probably made him more acceptable to his fellows. Even in fairly recent times old soldiers have proudly displayed their "scars of battle," and today in the outlawed duelling societies in Germany, a saber scar is a mark of distinction. I gave George back his old face by plas- tic surgery which removed the scar tissue and restored his features. The real curative agent was the removal of the emotional scars, the security against social "cuts," the healing of emotional hurts and injuries, and the restoration of his self-image as an acceptable member of society, which—in his case— surgery made possible. How Emotional Scars Alienate You From Life Many people have inner emotional scars who have never suffered physical injuries. To guard against future injury from that source they form a spiritual callus, an emotional scar to protect their ego. This scar tissue, how- ever, not only "protects" them from the individual who originally hurt them—it "protects" them against all other human beings. An emotional wall is built through which neither friend nor foe can pass, A woman, who has been "hurt" by one man, takes a vow never to trust any man again. A child who has had his ego sliced up by a despotic and cruel parent or teacher, may take a vow never to trust any authority in the future. A man who has had his love rejected by one woman may take a vow never to become emotionally in- volved with any human being in the future. As in the case of a facial scar, excessive protection against the original source of injury can make us more vulnerable, and do us even more damage in other areas. The emotional wall that we build as protection against one person, cuts us off from all other human beings, and from our real selves. Emotional Scars Help Make Juvenile Delinquents Psychiatrist Bernard Holland has pointed out that although juvenile delinquents appear to be very indepen- dent and have the reputation of being braggarts, particu- larly about how they hate everyone in authority, they pro- test too much. Holland, "is a soft vulnerable inner person who wants to be dependent upon others. Some- time in the past they were hurt by a person important to them, and they dare not leave themselves open to be hurt again. Thus, they drive away the very people who would love them, if given half a chance, and could help them. Emotional Scars Create a Marred and Ugly Self-image Emotional scars to our ego also have another adverse effect. The person with emotional scars not only has a self- image of an unwanted, unliked, and incapable person, he also has an image of the world in which he lives as a hos- tile place. His primary relationship with the world is one of hostility, and his dealings with other people are not based upon giving and accepting, cooperating, working with, enjoying with, but upon concepts of overcoming, combating, and protecting from.

It is more common in patients of Asian descent who have narrower angles at baseline 15gm ketoconazole cream with amex. It is more common in older patients discount 15gm ketoconazole cream visa, who have larger lenses causing narrower angles cheap ketoconazole cream 15 gm amex. In addition to pain in the eye and blurry vision, patients will often complain of “halos around lights,” headache, nausea/vomiting, and even abdominal pain. He has had swelling in the groin before, but it has gotten worse, more painful, and has become “hard. Social: lives with wife at home, denies alcohol, smoking, drugs, monogamous sex with wife g. Abdomen: distended, diffusely tender, bowel sounds absent, no pulsatile masses, no masses, positive rebound, positive guarding g. Part of the patient’s bowel has slipped from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum where it has become trapped. This leads to an obstruction of normal digestion with pain, distension of the abdomen, and tissue damage. Dilated loops of bowel with air-fuid levels on abdominal x-ray confrm the diagnosis of obstruction. Nasogastric suction should be initiated to assist in defation of the distended bowel. Patients should be hospitalized for monitoring and treatment; surgery is often indicated. Peritoneal signs are ominous in cases of obstruction, and often suggest a surgi- cal emergency. Given the history of high blood pressure, a systolic blood pressure in the 90s is more ominous than in a patient with baseline normal blood pressure. A high white blood cell count may be seen with bowel gangrene, abscess, or peritonitis. Patient appears stated age, comfortable, in no acute distress while lying in stretcher, alert, and oriented. Abdomen: bowel sounds normal; no distension or peritoneal signs; mild ten- derness in right upper and lower quadrants g. Psychiatric: normal affect; judgment and insight normal; remote and recent memory normal; no suicidal or homicidal ideation G. Discussion with patient and family regarding acute overdose of aspirin and its presentation and treatments c. Local Poison Control Center contacted – who recommend frequent labs and continued treatment until salicylate level falls below 20 Figure 13. Her presentation is classic: nausea, tremor, tinnitus, tachycardia, and tachypnea. She won’t connect last night’s headache with today’s symptoms unless specifcally asked about other recent illnesses or medications. Administer activated charcoal for gastric decontamination, especially when the patient presents soon after a toxic dose ingestion. Salicylate blood levels may peak in less than 1 hour or after more than 6 hours depending on the type of tablets ingested. Urinary salicylate clearance can be increased by the administration of sodium bicarbonate bolus followed by maintenance doses until salicylate levels fall below 20 mg/dl and clinical improvement noted. Patients present initially with respiratory alkalosis due to direct stimulation of the medulla leading to tachypnea and hyperpnea. Worsening of patient symptoms manifesting in end-organ damage will require emergent hemodiaylsis. Hypokalemia interferes with urine alkalinization; potassium levels should be monitored, and hypokalemia corrected. No sick contacts, travel history, unusual food, or raw meat and no fever noted in the patient. Neck: tonsils enlarged; left ear erythematous, dried blood in external ear canal bilaterally d. Abdomen: no distension, positive epigastric tenderness, decreased bowel sounds, no rebound or guarding g. Skin: palpable petechiae on bilateral elbows; petechiae on lower extremity and buttocks m. Pediatric surgery consult – no intussusception or other surgical pathology; con- tinue medical management b. Critical actions == Fluid resuscitation == Abdominal x-ray == Pain management == Laboratory evaluation of liver and renal injury == Surgery consult L. The cause is unknown, but often follows an upper respiratory infection and is immunologically mediated. When prompted, the mother will describe a rash on the lower extremity and buttocks for a few days. The rash often begins as pink maculopapules that blanch on pressure and pro-The rash often begins as pink maculopapules that blanch on pressure and pro- gresses to petechiae or purpura. It is often palpable (and henceforth the pathogno- monic fndings of “palpable purpura”). The lesions favor the lower extremities and occur in crops lasting from 1 week to 10 days. An abdominal radiograph or ultrasound may aid in the diagnosis of intussuception, but the gold standard is a barium enema test. However, imaging and labs should be ordered on the basis of the clinical picture, and to evaluate other abdominal pain causes (such as intussusception). Admission to the hospital may be appropriate if the diagnosis is in doubt, in chil- dren with severe symptoms, or concern for renal and abdominal symptoms. The pet snake escaped from a tank and is green and brown with black spots (must ask). Full range of motion, motor and sensory intact, no erythema, no edema, no induration; otherwise unremarkable examination h. The most important intervention is to assess the patient’s respiratory and cardiovascular status. The candidate should determine if airway management or cardiovascular resuscitation with fuids or pressors is needed. If possible, collect the snake in ques- tion (local animal control authorities may be contacted). Meanwhile, assess bite marks of local progression and expose the patient to visualize any other possi- ble bites. Luckily for the child in this case, the snake was of the nonpoisonous variety and prompt identifcation of the snake allowed for minimal invasive intervention and early discharge. Antivenin is specifc for each group of snakes; the local Poison Control Center may be helpful in determining the need. The majority of snakes are nonpoi- sonous but two major groups do pose a threat: crotalids (pit vipers including rattlesnakes, cotton mouths) and elapids (coral snakes, cobras). Crotalid venom is predominantly cytolytic and may cause edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis close to and far away from the bite. Systemic signs and symptoms may include hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagul- opathy, vomiting, and cardiovascular and respiratory failure.

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Periods longer than disease and tissue repair and is defined as productive five minutes indicate severe respiratory compromise buy ketoconazole cream 15gm lowest price. Because the skin of birds is lated requirements should be provided initially in very fragile and tears easily purchase ketoconazole cream 15gm with amex, removal of feathers is a order to prevent diarrhea buy ketoconazole cream 15gm low cost. Over a period of two to delicate procedure, and attempting to remove too three days, the concentration and volume of formula many feathers too quickly may result in bruising and are gradually increased as the intestines adapt to the tearing of the skin. Water requirements vary with species, diet, size, age Creating a Sterile Field and environmental temperature (see Chapter 15). Skin preparation solutions are used to decrease the num- Feather Control ber of bacteria present on the skin surface to mini- In preparing the skin for surgery, feathers surround- mize the risk of bacterial contamination of the sur- ing the proposed surgical site should be gently gery site. They should accomplish this objective plucked for a distance of two to three centimeters. Although studies have shown these con- (remiges and retrices) are attached to the periosteum centrations to be cytotoxic in vitro, they do not have of the underlying bone and have highly developed a significant clinical effect on wound healing. Removing these hexidine gluconate (4%) is equally effective whenc feathers is painful and is best accomplished while the rinsed with saline or alcohol. When flight feathers must be found to leave sufficient residual chlorhexidine glu- removed, they should be removed individually by conate bound to the skin to be effective. This is holding the feather at its base and pulling in the beneficial in avian patients where the use of alcohol direction of feather growth. When povidone iodine skin, muscles and periosteal attachments, the other (1%) was used as a skin preparation, approximately hand is used to carefully secure the tissues at the base of the feather while it is being removed (see Figure 15. These drapes can be folded with a sheet of tion27 because it has a broader spectrum of antimicro- plastic but must be gas sterilized and are not adhesive. However, in allow the surgeon to create a sterile field incorporat- clinical settings, the type of scrub solution used has ing the entire surgery table and instrument stand. This will prevent accidental contamina- and secondary flight feathers can be wrapped to- tion of the arms and elbows by touching them to an gether with masking tape. With avian patients stration one to two hours preoperatively, and main- clear drapes are recommended, as they allow the taining therapeutic doses for 8 to 16 hours postopera- surgeon and anesthetist to visually monitor the pa- tively, will accomplish this goal. Clear plastic drapes are infection or significant contamination, use of antibi- commercially available with or without povidonee otics beyond this period is not indicated and has been iodine impregnation. These drapes have an adhesive shown not to decrease the incidence of surgical that will stick to dry avian skin and create a sterile wound infections. These drapes conform closely to Wound Healing the patient’s body, are lightweight, disposable and inexpensive, and allow the anesthetist to monitor Wound healing has been thoroughly studied in mam- respiratory movements. As an alternative, a clear mals, and five phases have been described: the in- flammatory stage, the fibroblastic phase, the epi- thelialization phase, the contraction phase and the remodeling phase. During the2 first two to six hours, large numbers of heterophils, basophils and monocytes migrate into the wound margins. In this case, primarily mononuclear cells such as lymphocytes, the feathers from the mid-diaphysial humerus to the carpus were plasma cells, macrophages and monocytes. The primary feathers were clipped and the next 36 hours, macrophages and multinucleated wrapped in a self-adherent bandage material to facilitate the giant cells begin to phagocytize those leukocytes that creation of a sterile field without removal of the primary feathers. The collagen content stabilizes the wound margins and proliferate over the next few after the third week. In the inflammatory phase, the exudate contains fibrinogen, which is con- Freshly created (within eight hours), uncomplicated verted to fibrin by the release of tissue enzymes. This wounds should be treated by primary closure with acts as a hemostatic barrier and a scaffolding for anticipated first intention healing;5 however, this is other repair elements such as the incoming fi- not appropriate for the treatment of open, contami- broblasts. They contain plasminogen activator that is necessary for the breakdown of the fibrin. Collagen is synthesized during this fibroblas- tic phase beginning on the third or fourth day in birds8 and on the fourth or fifth day in mammals. As the Instuments for avian surgery should be appropriate content of collagen increases, the number of fi- to the patient’s size. In many cases, ophthalmic in- broblasts decreases, and the capillaries begin to re- struments are suitable and should be included in the gress. The cells enlarge and mi- sues are delicate, the use of toothed forceps is seldom grate down and across the wound. Debakey-type forceps are relatively begin to proliferate until the entire wound surface atraumatic and serve well in avian surgery. A sterile gavage or feeding tube can be The contraction phase is described as “the process by used for irrigation or for flushing out hollow viscera which the size of a full-thickness open wound is (such as the proventriculus during proventriculo- diminished and is characterized by the centripetal tomy). Various sizes of bone curettes are useful to movement of the whole thickness of surrounding 29 retrieve foreign bodies from the ventriculus or skin. This type clot, epithelialization and ingrowth of new capillaries of suction tip also has a small hole at the finger rest, occur early and provide some support to the wound. Care must be taken with this type of tip and a powerful suction unit in order not to damage viscera inadvertently suctioned against the tip. The strength of suction can be controlled on most suction units and should be adjusted so that fluids can be evacuated without damaging tissues. In this photograph, a lid retractor is being used to maintain an opening in the left abdomi- three centimeters of the catheter. The seventh rib (r) has been isolated and cut ventrally to fenestrations, the suction force is distributed among facilitate its removal for better access to the proventriculus. Addi- eral rents can be seen in the relatively clear caudal abdominal air sac (arrow) just to the left of the rib. The proventriculus (p) and tionally, if some of the holes are occluded by tissue, ventriculus (v) can be seen deep to the surgical site. Multiple-sized clips should be available to ad- A one- to three-millimeter rigid endoscope is helpful dress varied-sized patients and different surgical for visualizing areas that the surgeon may not be needs. The major expense is encountered in purchas- able to access with the operating microscope (eg, ing the applier, as the clips themselves are relatively lumen of hollow viscera). The appliers are available either propriate for small avian patients should maintain straight or with a 45° bend. The bent-tipped applier retraction but not have blades that extend deep into is useful for deep clip placement; however, the bent- the body cavity. Mini-Balfour retractors are useful in tipped instruments are about twice the size of the large patients such as macaws and cockatoos, Alm equivalent straight-tipped applier, making them retractors are appropriate for medium-sized patients more cumbersome to use. Generally, the small and like Amazons and conures, and Heiss retractors work medium clips are used most frequently. Small gauze pads (2 x 2) and In many situations, the placement of ligatures in sterile cotton-tipped applicators should also be avail- deep surgical sites is unachievable or results in un- able (see Figure 40. Surgical spearsj are small, acceptable tissue damage due to the relative inacces- wedge-shaped, highly absorbent, synthetic sponges sibility and delicate nature of avian tissues.

The differentiation in sub- groups A and B may also reflect some differences in pathogenicity purchase 15 gm ketoconazole cream amex. Subgroup A viruses induce refractive purchase 15gm ketoconazole cream with visa, small cheap 15gm ketoconazole cream with visa, roundish inclusions surrounded by a clear halo and tend to cause persistent infections with sporadic Adenovirus disease. Subgroup B viruses induce nonrefractive, irregular, eosinophilic inclusions that fill the nucleus and may cause epornitics, with a tendency not to persist in the host. The Adenoviridae family consists of two genera: Mas- tadenovirus (contains mammalian strains) and Aviadenovirus are distributed around the world, and Aviadenovirus. The two genera have a distinct group many avian species of all age groups are known to be antigen. Because the isolation of previously un- glutination activity; most aviadenovirus strains do characterized aviadenovirus is to be expected, it is not. Aviadenovirus are divided into three groups ac- likely that the current host range is incomplete. Latently infected birds types (numbered 1-12) that have been isolated from experience cyclic changes of the amount of humoral chickens, turkeys (3 serotypes), pigeons, budgeri- antibodies and virus titers and vice versa. Egg trans- gars, Mallard Ducks, guineafowl, pheasants, geese (3 mission plays a role in the maintenance of infections serotypes) and Muscovy Ducks. Intranuclear inclusion bodies suggestive of adenovirus were demonstrated by histopathology (see Color 32. Histopathology reveals mononuclear cellular in- filtrates in the lamina propria of the trachea, hyper- Aviadenovirus is generally considered to be an oppor- trophy of the mucosal glands and finally loss of the tunistic pathogen. Liver lesions vary with the virulence of chickens include immunosuppression caused by in- the strain, but may include vacuolated degeneration fectious bursal disease and the chicken anemia vi- of the hepatocytic cytoplasm with lymphocytic infil- rus. Some highly virulent hepatocytes show intranuclear eosinophilic inclu- strains of aviadenovirus are capable of producing sions, which increase in size and become basophilic disease alone (hydropericardium syndrome). In the novirus can trigger secondary infections by inducing pancreas, irregular necrosis, mainly of the exogenic mild histopathologic lesions without clinical signs. These lesions allow secondary bacteria, fungi velop more slowly than in mammals, and in many and protozoa to enter the host. Parvoviruses that cases death occurs prior to inflammation so that require an adenovirus for replication have decreased hepatitis and enteritis may not occur. A large number of strains have necrotic pancreatitis, but some respiratory signs (air not been typed and in many instances, the etiologic sacculitis) also occur. Young chicks are highly have been associated with respiratory signs, anemia, susceptible. Older birds are more resistant, and dis- inclusion body hepatitis, intestinal disease, pancrea- ease has been established only by parenteral titis and nephropathies. In one case, the only lesion first described in 1950 and only Bobwhite Quail (cap- was swelling of the respiratory tract mucosa and in tive and free-ranging) are susceptible. In one case, intranuclear inclusions white Quail, a slow replication in chicken tissue and were also found in the pancreas. Vertical transmission to chicken adenovirus, and two of which could not be should be expected, although this route has not yet serologically typed. Clinical signs include sudden death or signs of respi- ratory disease, such as tracheal rales, coughing, bal- A chronic enteritis was described in mainly young looning skin over the infraorbital sinus, sneezing, 36 pigeons with some adults affected. Necropsy le- ity of disease depends on the age of the host, and sions were nonspecific. Histopathologically, club- milder signs may be observed in birds older than shaped, damaged villi in the duodenum and jejunum three weeks. In- include catarrhal tracheitis with an excess of clear tranuclear inclusion bodies containing adeno-like vi- mucus in the air sacs or pulmonary edema. Lym- inclusion bodies suggestive of adenovirus may be phocytic, heterophilic infiltrates occur in the intes- seen in the tracheal epithelium two to five days tine, liver and other parenchymatous organs. Proliferation of lymph follicles and lympho- Differences in clinical signs and pathology associated cytic infiltrations are evident. Further studies are needed to other reports have suggested infections based on elucidate the importance of adenovirus in pigeons. The brain showed neuronal necrosis, satellitosis The adenovirus failed to grow in culture but reovirus and proliferation of glial cells. Gross necropsy Pigeons have been described with clinical signs of findings were enlargement of the proventriculus and anorexia, a “crouching position” for one to two days, the duodenum. Adenovirus- Adenovirus-like intranuclear inclusions have also like particles were demonstrated by electron micros- been described in the otherwise normal renal tubular copy in large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies epithelium of clinically normal lovebirds. In other in the hepatocytes of cockatiels with enlarged ne- birds, numerous inclusions were associated with tu- crotic livers. Inclusions in the renal tubules ern Rosella, Hyacinth Macaw and a Lesser Sulphur- have been shown to be located also within the rami crested Cockatoo. Adenovirus Adenovirus-like particles have been connected with was described as the cause of acute pancreatic ne- acute onsets of mild diarrhea and lethargy in Eclec- crosis in an Umbrella Cockatoo. Hepatitis with subcapsular hemorrhage and enteritis (in some birds hemorrhagic) were the Waterfowl: An epornitic of adenovirus was described main lesions. Affected and enterocytes together with diffuse inflammatory animals were lame and emaciated. Irregular, discrete suddenly at about 35 days of age, and mortality rates interstitial pneumonia and rapid death were also averaged 1 to 1. Three serotypes of adenovirus have been described in goslings;449 but virus isolated from the cases did not Adenovirus was isolated from two budgerigars with produce clinical or pathologic lesions in experimen- individual histories of enteritis and sudden death. Inclusion body hepatitis was de- An adenovirus epizootic of one year’s duration was scribed in goslings with high mortality and ade- described in budgerigars, generally adults one to novirus-like particles in the nuclei of the three years old, in Germany. Nonpurulent encephali- Diagnosis tis, proliferation of glial cells and degeneration and A definitive diagnosis based on clinical or pathologic lysis of ganglion cells were the principle histologic changes is not possible. Nonspecific hepatitis with infiltration of achieved from the feces, pharynx, kidneys and liver. Chicken embryo liver or kidney cells and embryon- Adenovirus was isolated from two affected birds. Histopathology, together within situ The clinical and pathologic signs are suggestive of hybridization, electron microscopy or virus isolation the disease. The virus is ber of adenovirus serotypes, a monovalent vaccine difficult to demonstrate in culture (lymphoblastoid would be of questionable value. Vertical transmission B-cells derived from Marek-induced tumors are best and the continuous cycle of viremia followed by anti- for isolation). The agent forms intranuclear inclusion body production in infected birds makes it exceed- bodies, particularly in splenic cells, and the presence ingly difficult to produce uninfected offspring. Acute death may occur without clinical without developing clinical or pathologic signs. Ade- signs or preceded by a brief period of anorexia and novirus antibodies were demonstrated in flocks of dyspnea caused by severe pulmonary edema.

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