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By G. Rhobar. Trinity Christian College. 2018.

Medication is also absorbed by the skin using the transdermal route purchase 250 mg eulexin amex, which is commonly known as the “patch discount eulexin 250 mg fast delivery. Patients with lung problems sometimes receive medication using the inhalation route cheap 250 mg eulexin amex. Medication is delivered using an inhaler that changes liquid medication into a spray. The suppository route is used to administer medication through the rectum and the vagina. Tablets can be divided using a tablet cutter into half or quarters to reduce the dosage that is given to the patient. Some tablets can also be crushed so that the medication can be mixed with food such as applesauce. Capsules must be taken whole because they are enteric-coated so that the medication isn’t released until it reaches the intestines. Food and liquid might interfere with the patient’s ability to absorb the medication depending on the drug. An elixir is a sweet, pleasant-smelling solution of alcohol and water used as a vehicle for medicine. An emulsion is a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix, such as milk fats in milk. And a sus- pension is a preparation of finely divided, undissolved particles dispersed in a liquid, such as bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). When administering liquid medication: • Dilute, shake, or stir the medication only if required (follow the direc- tions on the label). When administering sublingual or buccal medication: • Do not permit the patient to ingest food or liquid if the medication is administered sublingually (under the tongue) or bucally (between the cheek and gum) until the medication is completely absorbed. These include cardiovascular medication such as nitroglycerin, neoplastic drugs (cancer), and hormones (estrogen and birth control medications). In addition, analgesics (Fentanyl), medication used to treat allergic reactions, and smoking cessation drugs such as Nicotrol are also administered through the transdermal route. Transdermal patches provide a consistent blood level and less absorption problems in the gastrointestinal tract that are commonly experienced by patients who take oral medications. The paper has measurement lines on it and the medication is squeezed onto the paper in the amount ordered. Never apply topical med- ication with an ungloved hand because medication may be absorbed into your body as well as into the patient’s body. You’ll need to take special precautions when admin- istering an instillation to prevent spreading the disease. Here’s what you need to do to administer installations in the eye: • Check the prescriber’s order. This prevents the systemic absorption of the medication through the lacrimal canal. Here’s what you need to do to administer eardrops: • Check the prescriber’s order. This is a common route used to administer bronchodilators to patients with breathing problems such as asthma, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The medication enters the lower respiratory tract where it is rapidly absorbed in the bronchioles providing the patient with relief from bronchospasms, wheez- ing, asthma, or allergic reactions. Inhalation is used to deliver antibiotics, steroids and mucolytic agents (drugs that thin secretions making it easier to clear the bronchi). The patient can expe- rience side effects such as tremors, nausea, tachycardia, palpitations, ner- vousness, and dysrhythmias (see Chapter 14). The hand-held metered dose device is a small, metal container about 5 to 6 inches high, with a push button spray device on the top to release the medication. The efficiency increases by using a spacer, which delivers 21% of the medication to the lungs. The medication is released into the spacer and then the patient inhales slowly and deeply to get the drug into the airway. The nasogastric tube is passed through the nose and into the stomach opening with direct access to the stomach through which med- ication can be administered to the patient. The nasogastric tube is also used as a temporary feeding tube and to remove stomach contents. The gastrostomy tube is inserted through the skin and directly into the stomach and is used primarily as a permanent feeding tube that can also be used to administer medication. When administering medication through the nasogastric tube and the gas- trostomy tube: • Check the prescriber’s order. It is also used when digestive enzymes change the chemical integrity of the medication. The rectum promotes absorption of the medication because it contains many capillaries and can produce a high blood concentration of the medication. Insulin is injected subcutaneously, although regular insulin can also be administered intravenous. Medications administered intravenously have a faster onset of therapeutic effect than other parenteral routes. Vacci- nations, some antibiotics, and other medications are injected intramuscularly. Medication injected intradermally has a localized effect because it does not enter the bloodstream. Injections are given using a 26–27 gauge needle and a 1 mL syringe calibrated in 0. Here’s how to administer medication intradermally: • Check the prescriber’s medication order. If the patient is allergic to the med- ication, then the diameter of the wheal should increase. Subcutaneous medications are absorbed through capillaries and the onset of the medication is slower than intramuscular and intravenous routes. To prevent lypodystro- phy, sites must be rotated if injections are given frequently. Lypodystrophy is a loss of the fat area under the skin causing ineffective absorption of insulin. These sites are: abdomen, upper hips, upper back, lateral upper arms, and lateral thighs. Subcutaneous injections are given using a 25–27-gauge needle that is 1/2 or 5/8 inches in length and with a 1 to 3 mL syringe calibrated 0. Here’s how to administer medication subcutaneously: • Check the prescriber’s medication order.

She and her husband have been trying to have children for years and were counting on this pregnancy to come to term discount 250 mg eulexin fast delivery. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care buy discount eulexin 250mg on-line, 7th Edition buy 250mg eulexin overnight delivery. Identification of factors causing undesirable success or failure response and preventing desired change d. Which of the following is a correctly written desired change goal for a patient who is scheduled to ambulate d. Over the next 24-hour period, the patient 50-year-old executive, is being discharged will walk the length of the hallway assisted from the hospital after undergoing coronary by the nurse. The nurse will help the patient ambulate strates an affective goal for this patient? Patient will become mobile within a demonstrate breathing techniques to 24-hour period. Which of the following patient sufficiently to reduce the cholesterol in his goals for Mr. Nursing interventions are a separate entity carry out necessary self-care behaviors at from the original goal/outcome. According to Maslow, which of the following ten and when the plan of care is reviewed. At least one of the outcomes should show a Multiple Response Questions direct resolution of the problem statement in the nursing diagnosis. The patient and family need not value the outcomes as long as they support the plan 1. Which of the following actions occur during strate injecting himself with insulin. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Conditions a restaurant for lunch, how to help a young cancer patient accept the loss of a limb, e. Which of the following goals are written planning that are critical to comprehensive correctly? The patient will know how to dress her “Pain related to delayed healing of surgical wound after receiving a demonstration. After attending an infant care class, the patient will correctly demonstrate the pro- cedure for bathing her newborn. By 4/5/12, the patient will demonstrate Outcomes Project, presents the first compre- how to care for a colostomy. When a nurse writes a statement regarding a two coping measures to deal with stress. Which of the following accurately describe the supporting the statement, he/she is writing purposes of a plan of nursing care? It represents an effective philosophy of on clinical judgment and knowledge that a nursing and is intended to advance only nurse performs to enhance patient outcomes. When a nurse supplies education to an obese patient best and is recorded on the day the teenager regarding the fat content in food and patient presents for treatment and care, helps him choose a nutritious diet, he/she is according to agency policy. When a nurse administers physician- always a response to the individual charac- prescribed pain medication to a patient teristics and needs of the patient. A(n) is a set of steps (typically responsibilities for fulfilling the medical and embedded in a branching flowchart) that interdisciplinary plan of care. It is separate from the discharge plan and clinician and is used to make a decision. When appropriate, it is compatible with directs the efforts of the nursing team as the the medical plan of care and that of the nurses work with patients to meet health goals. Ongoing, problem-solving care plan Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. By 3/30/12, patient will list three reasons and physical assessment to continue taking blood pressure medication. Used to keep the nursing plan up to worker familiar with the patient’s date community. The emphasis of this care plan is to oritized nursing diagnoses and identifies clearly state expected patient outcomes appropriate patient goals and related and the specific times by which it is nursing care reasonable to achieve these outcomes. The emphasis of this type of care plan is and develops new diagnoses to individualize the plan to meet unique 19. This diagram of patient problems and and family interventions is used to organize data, 20. Involves teaching and counseling skills analyze data, and take a holistic view of to help the patient and family carry out the patient situation. Affective goals Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Nursing care related to the medical and ing interventions: interdisciplinary plan of care: d. List four considerations a nurse should employ when planning nursing care for each day. Explain how a formal plan of care benefits that are written correctly, and on the line the nurse and patient. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. List six measures nurses should consider to correctly plan healthcare for a patient. Identify a patient goal that shows a direct resolution of the health problem expressed c. Nursing diagnosis: Altered Sexual Patterns: appropriate in each of the three stages of Loss of Desire related to change in body planning (initial planning, ongoing planning, image and feelings of unattractiveness discharge planning) using the following following mastectomy patient data. You notice his skin related to age-related degenerative changes is pale and there are several bruises on his and weak pelvic muscles and structural arms and legs. On examination, you notice supports his spleen is enlarged and the abdominal area is tender. Nursing Diagnosis: Activity Intolerance weight loss, chronic fatigue, and heavy related to decreased amount of oxygenated sweating at night. He has a productive blood available to tissues cough with yellowish mucus and chest pain. Patient goal: Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Examples: rectus (straight) femoris cheap eulexin 250 mg without a prescription, rectus abdominus generic 250 mg eulexin mastercard, and serratus (sawtooth) anterior discount eulexin 250mg mastercard. Figurative names: These muscle names are based on the muscles’ resemblance to some objects. Examples: gastrocnemius (resembles the stomach) and trapez- ius (resembles a tablet). Check out Table 6-1 for a rundown of prominent muscles in the body and key points to remember about each one. In the naming of the muscles, the latissimus dorsi, the rectus abdominis, and the serratus anterior are names based upon a. In humans, the origin of the biceps brachii would best include which of the following? Semitendinosus Chapter 6: Getting in Gear: The Muscles 109 Answers to Questions on Muscles The following are answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter. If every muscle in the body were to relax, the heart would stop beating and food would stop moving through the digestive system. To remember this stage of development, combine the Greek myo with genesis, or new beginning. All the other identi- fied regions grow larger or smaller through the functions of myosin and actin. Muscle contractions are all-or-nothing; there’s no such thing as a partial contraction. Perimysium x Connective tissue through which arteries and veins enter muscle bundles: c. Trabecula y Flat, sheet-like tendon that serves as insertion for a large flat muscle: b. B Which of the following statements finishes this sentence and makes it not true: A contracting muscle unable to move a load d. This statement is false because the contraction of the muscle causes tension in all cases. F Which of the following would produce a wide range of movement with speed while sacrificing power? The longer the weight arm, the greater the range of action and speed but the less power there is. J In the naming of the muscles, the latissimus dorsi, the rectus abdominis, and the serratus ante- rior are names based upon a. Latissimus stems from the Latin for “wide,” rectus from the Latin word for “straight,” and serratus from the Latin word for “notched” or “scalloped. You can figure out this answer by recalling that cleido stems from the Latin word for “collarbone. Scapula M Which of the following are insertions for the triceps and biceps brachii? The term abdominis is the giveaway here because it should make you think of the abdomen. Although people usually think of the biceps brachii in the arm, you can’t forget about the biceps femoris at the back of the thigh. In an average person, its 17 to D20 square feet of surface area represents 15 percent of the body’s weight. Self-repairing and surprisingly durable, the skin is the first line of defense against the harmful effects of the outside world. It helps retain moisture; regulates body temperature; hosts the sense receptors for touch, pain, and heat; excretes excess salts and small amounts of waste; and even stores blood to be moved quickly to other parts of the body when needed. Skin is jam-packed with components; it has been estimated that every square inch of skin contains 15 feet of blood vessels, 4 yards of nerves, 650 sweat glands, 100 oil glands, 1,500 sensory receptors, and over 3 million cells with an average lifespan of 26 days that are con- stantly being replaced. Dermatology Down Deep Skin — together with hair, nails, and glands — composes the integumentary system (shown in Figure 7-1). Composed of areolar (porous) and adipose (fat) tissue, it anchors the skin through fibers that extend from the dermis. Underneath, the hypodermis attaches loosely to tissues and organs so that muscles can move freely. Around elbow and knee joints, the hypodermis contains fluid-filled sacs called bursae. The fat in the hypodermis buffers deeper tissues and acts as insulation, preventing heat loss from within the body’s core. The hypodermis also is home to pressure-sensitive nerve endings called lamellated or Pacinian corpuscles that respond to a deeper poke in the skin. Epidermis: Don’t judge this book by its cover Epidermis, which contains no blood vessels, is made up of layers of closely packed epithelial cells. From the outside in, these layers are the following: Stratum corneum (literally the “horny layer”) is about 20 layers of flat, scaly, dead cells containing a type of water-repellent protein called keratin. These cells, which represent about three-quarters of the thickness of the epidermis, are said to be cornified, which means that they’re tough and horny like the cells that form hair or fingernails. Humans shed this layer of tough, durable skin at a prodigious rate; in fact, much of household dust consists of these flaked-off cells. Where the skin is rubbed or pressed more often, cell division increases, resulting in calluses and corns. Stratum lucidum (from the Latin word for “clear”) is found only in the thick skin on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. This translucent layer of dead cells contains eleidin, a protein that becomes keratin as the cells migrate into the stratum corneum, and it consists of cells that have lost their nuclei and cytoplasm. Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 115 Stratum granulosum is three to five layers of flattened cells containing kerato- hyalin, a substance that marks the beginning of keratin formation. No nourish- ment from blood vessels reaches this far into the epidermis, so cells are either dead or dying by the time they reach the stratum granulosum. The nuclei of cells found in this layer are degenerating; when the nuclei break down entirely, the cell can’t metabolize nutrients and dies. Stratum spinosum (also sometimes called the spinous layer) has ten layers con- taining prickle cells, named for the spine-like projections that connect them with other cells in the layer. Langerhans cells, believed to be involved in the body’s immune response, are prevalent in the upper portions of this layer and some- times the lower part of the stratum granulosum; they migrate from the skin to the lymph nodes in response to infection. Some mitosis (cell division) takes place in the stratum spinosum, but the cells lose the ability to divide as they mature. Stratum basale (or stratum germinativum) is also referred to as the germinal layer because this single layer of mostly columnar stem cells generates all the cells found in the other epidermal layers. It rests on the papillary (rough or bumpy) surface of the dermis, close to the blood supply needed for nourishment and oxygen. The mitosis that constantly occurs here replenishes the skin; it takes about two weeks for the cells that originate here to migrate up to the stratum corneum, and it’s another two weeks before they’re shed. About a quarter of this layer’s cells are melanocytes, cells that synthesize a pale yellow to black pigment called melanin that contributes to skin color and provides protection against ultraviolet radiation (the kind of radiation found in sunlight). The remaining cells in this layer become keratinocytes, the primary epithelial cell of the skin.

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With a partner or several classmates cheap eulexin 250mg on line, write and/or ethical/legal competencies are most appropriate nursing diagnoses for the likely to bring about the desired outcome? She is overwrought and says she feels God is punishing her for an abortion she had when she was in college buy 250mg eulexin mastercard. She and her husband have been trying to have children for years and were counting on this pregnancy to come to term cheap eulexin 250mg line. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Identification of factors causing undesirable success or failure response and preventing desired change d. Which of the following is a correctly written desired change goal for a patient who is scheduled to ambulate d. Over the next 24-hour period, the patient 50-year-old executive, is being discharged will walk the length of the hallway assisted from the hospital after undergoing coronary by the nurse. The nurse will help the patient ambulate strates an affective goal for this patient? Patient will become mobile within a demonstrate breathing techniques to 24-hour period. Which of the following patient sufficiently to reduce the cholesterol in his goals for Mr. Nursing interventions are a separate entity carry out necessary self-care behaviors at from the original goal/outcome. According to Maslow, which of the following ten and when the plan of care is reviewed. At least one of the outcomes should show a Multiple Response Questions direct resolution of the problem statement in the nursing diagnosis. The patient and family need not value the outcomes as long as they support the plan 1. Which of the following actions occur during strate injecting himself with insulin. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Conditions a restaurant for lunch, how to help a young cancer patient accept the loss of a limb, e. Which of the following goals are written planning that are critical to comprehensive correctly? The patient will know how to dress her “Pain related to delayed healing of surgical wound after receiving a demonstration. After attending an infant care class, the patient will correctly demonstrate the pro- cedure for bathing her newborn. By 4/5/12, the patient will demonstrate Outcomes Project, presents the first compre- how to care for a colostomy. When a nurse writes a statement regarding a two coping measures to deal with stress. Which of the following accurately describe the supporting the statement, he/she is writing purposes of a plan of nursing care? It represents an effective philosophy of on clinical judgment and knowledge that a nursing and is intended to advance only nurse performs to enhance patient outcomes. When a nurse supplies education to an obese patient best and is recorded on the day the teenager regarding the fat content in food and patient presents for treatment and care, helps him choose a nutritious diet, he/she is according to agency policy. When a nurse administers physician- always a response to the individual charac- prescribed pain medication to a patient teristics and needs of the patient. A(n) is a set of steps (typically responsibilities for fulfilling the medical and embedded in a branching flowchart) that interdisciplinary plan of care. It is separate from the discharge plan and clinician and is used to make a decision. When appropriate, it is compatible with directs the efforts of the nursing team as the the medical plan of care and that of the nurses work with patients to meet health goals. Ongoing, problem-solving care plan Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. By 3/30/12, patient will list three reasons and physical assessment to continue taking blood pressure medication. Used to keep the nursing plan up to worker familiar with the patient’s date community. The emphasis of this care plan is to oritized nursing diagnoses and identifies clearly state expected patient outcomes appropriate patient goals and related and the specific times by which it is nursing care reasonable to achieve these outcomes. The emphasis of this type of care plan is and develops new diagnoses to individualize the plan to meet unique 19. This diagram of patient problems and and family interventions is used to organize data, 20. Involves teaching and counseling skills analyze data, and take a holistic view of to help the patient and family carry out the patient situation. Affective goals Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Nursing care related to the medical and ing interventions: interdisciplinary plan of care: d. List four considerations a nurse should employ when planning nursing care for each day. Explain how a formal plan of care benefits that are written correctly, and on the line the nurse and patient. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. List six measures nurses should consider to correctly plan healthcare for a patient. Identify a patient goal that shows a direct resolution of the health problem expressed c. Nursing diagnosis: Altered Sexual Patterns: appropriate in each of the three stages of Loss of Desire related to change in body planning (initial planning, ongoing planning, image and feelings of unattractiveness discharge planning) using the following following mastectomy patient data. You notice his skin related to age-related degenerative changes is pale and there are several bruises on his and weak pelvic muscles and structural arms and legs. On examination, you notice supports his spleen is enlarged and the abdominal area is tender. Nursing Diagnosis: Activity Intolerance weight loss, chronic fatigue, and heavy related to decreased amount of oxygenated sweating at night.

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After two and four months 250 mg eulexin, those using citronella lotion had fewer cases of head lice buy eulexin 250 mg mastercard. It works by dissolving the wax that covers the head lice buy discount eulexin 250 mg online, dehydrating them and causing them to die. In one preliminary study, 28 out of 29 partici- pants were lice-free after using Resultz. The product is applied to dry hair and left on for 10 minutes, then rinsed away with warm water. Tea tree: Heavily promoted for head lice, but the scientific evidence that it works is lacking. It is said to degrade the bond of the lice to the hair shaft and help dislodge them from the scalp. Regular use may help prevent an outbreak, but there are some concerns with using this on the scalp as it can cause adverse effects (skin rash and irritation). Test a small patch of skin prior to use and consult with your health care provider. Applying these thick products to the hair and scalp and leaving on overnight will theoretically reduce the attachment of lice, but there are no clinical studies supporting the efficacy of these products. Spray the base of the neck, as well as jackets and knapsacks, with a combination of water and essential oil of lavender. It is difficult to define “normal” sexual desire as it varies among individuals, gender, and age. However, surveys have L found that approximately 30–40 percent of all adults complain of a low sex drive. This may be a primary condition (a person never felt much sexual desire) or sec- ondary (a person used to possess sexual desire, but no longer has an interest). There are many factors that affect one’s libido—psychological, physical, medical, and even lifestyle. While this is a sensitive topic for some to discuss, it is an important one because lack of desire for a partner can have troubling consequences for the rela- tionship. As well, studies have found a correlation between sexual desire and overall happiness. For women with low estrogen, testosterone, or progesterone, a compounding pharmacy can prepare a topical cream in an appropriate dosage that is better tolerated than oral pills. For example, oysters are high in zinc, which raises sperm and testosterone production, yet studies showing that oysters raise libido have not been done. Foods to avoid: • Refined carbohydrates, sugar, processed and fast foods, and caffeine can trigger mood swings, irritability, and anxiety. An aphrodisiac is a food, drink, drug, scent, or device that can arouse or increase sexual desire. Named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty, there is a long list of purported aphrodisiacs, including anchovies, oysters, adrenaline, licorice, chocolate, and Spanish fly. According to the Food and Drug Administration, the re- puted sexual effects of aphrodisiacs are based in folklore, not fact. In 1989, the agency declared that there is no scientific proof that any over-the-counter aphrodisiacs work to treat sexual dysfunction. Lifestyle Suggestions • Exercise: Aerobic activities such as walking and cycling can reduce stress, improve mood, increase energy, and improve circulation (improved blood supply to the pelvic area may help to improve sexual sensation and satisfaction). Aromatherapy oils known to inspire romance include rose, clary sage, sandalwood, and jasmine. Top Recommended Supplements Arginine: An amino acid that is involved in many body processes including hormone secre- tion and the production of nitrous oxide (substance that relaxes blood vessels). Several studies have found it helpful for improving sexual desire and function in both men and women. It is often combined with other products such as yohimbe, ginkgo biloba and dami- ana. Muira puama: Also known as potency wood, clinical studies have found it beneficial for enhancing libido and other aspects of sexual function in both men and women. Researchers at the Institute of Sexology in Paris studied the effects of a product con- taining muira puama and ginkgo biloba in 202 women with low sex drive. Various aspects of their sex life were rated before and after one month of treatment. Significant improvements occurred in the frequency of sexual desires, sexual intercourse, sexual fantasies, satisfaction with sex life, intensity of sexual desires, excitement of fantasies, ability to reach orgasm, and intensity of orgasm. Reported compliance and tolerability were good (Advances in Therapy, 2000: 17(5): 255–262). One double-blind, placebo-controlled study looked at the effects of a combination therapy of arginine, ginseng, ginkgo, damiana, multivitamins, and minerals (ArginMax) in 77 women with poor sexual function. Improvements were seen in libido, orgasm, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral sensation (Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 2001: 27; 541–549). Another double-blind placebo-controlled study using the same product formulation was conducted in 108 women with low sexual desire. After four weeks, both pre- and post-menopausal women who took the ArginMax noted a significant improvement in sexual desire. Supplements for erectile dysfunction are listed under that condition in this book. Supplements of arginine, ginkgo biloba and muira puama may help improve several aspects of sexual interest and function. It most commonly affects your skin, joints, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs. The un- L derlying cause of lupus is not known, but researchers believe that it results from a combination of factors, including genetics, environment (sunlight), and hormones. The word “lupus” comes from the Latin word for “wolf” because doctors once thought the classic lupus rash resembled a wolf’s face. It appears across the cheeks and bridge of the nose and is actually more of a butterfly-shaped rash. Drug-induced lupus: Results from the long-term use of certain prescription drugs, such as the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, high blood pressure medications (hydralazine), the tuberculosis drug isoniazid, and the heart medication procainamide. Symptoms (joint pain, swelling, fever, and fatigue) usually disappear after the drug is stopped. This form causes inflammation and pain throughout the body, affecting the joints, muscles, and skin. In recent decades, early diagnosis and treatment have greatly improved the life expectancy and quality of life for those with lupus. Proper medical care and lifestyle strategies can help to manage the symptoms and put the disease into remission. Typical symptoms include: • Arthritis: Joint pain, particularly in the fingers, hands, wrists, and knees • Blood vessel inflammation • Digestive problems: Abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting • Fatigue and fever • Hair loss • Headaches, dizziness, visual problems, and depression • Heart problems: Inflammation of the sac around the heart (pericarditis), which causes shortness of breath and chest pain • Kidney damage: Symptoms may include swelling in the legs 311 • Lung problems: Pleuritis (inflammation of the lining of the lungs) • Raynaud’s phenomenon: Fingers, toes, nose, and ears turn pale and numb when exposed to cold temperatures • Skin lesions: Small pimples or flat lesions that can become scaly, crusty, or itchy L • Skin rash (affects one in three people with lupus) • Sun sensitivity (photosensitivity) • Swollen glands or swelling around the eyes • Ulcers in the mouth or nose Without treatment, complications from lupus can be life-threatening. The disease can cause significant damage to the kidneys, heart, central nervous system, and lungs.

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