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N. Grubuz. Southern Connecticut State University.

Indeed buy discount accutane 5 mg online, a number of such factors are mentioned by Galen in the pages following on the Diocles fragment: not only the ‘peculiar essence’ (o«ke©a oÉs©a) of the substance itself buy accutane 20 mg on line, but also climate order 5 mg accutane overnight delivery, geographical area, season, a patient’s natural constitution, his way of life (t‡ –pithdeÅmata), his age, particular characteristics of the stomach and the intestines determine the effect a foodstuff produces in a particular case. A third interpretation of ‘the whole nature’ has been proposed by Jaeger, who argued that the nature of the consuming organism is meant, that is, the constitution of its body, its age, and so on. It therefore seems best to interpret the words ‘the whole nature’ as referring to the nature of the foodstuff. In section 8 Diocles criticises a third claim, which is, like the first, pre- sented as a view which is actually being held by a certain group (‘those who believe... The claim seems to be that in every par- ticular case, one should state the cause why a thing (again we may think of a foodstuff) has a certain dietetic power. At first sight, this claim looks rather different from the ones discussed earlier, for what is at issue is not the identity or the kind of causes sought for but the search for causes itself. Moreover, there is a shift of attention from the universal (‘all’, p†nta in section 5) to the particular (‘each’, –fì —k†stou in section 8). His first argument seems rather obvious: for practical purposes, causal explanation is not often ‘necessary’. For instance, when we know that a certain foodstuff is profitable for people 16 Galen, De alim. His second objection is that a causal explanation of a substance’s having a certain power is in many cases not possible. As for the words ‘many of the things that are’, poll‡ tän Àntwn, it seems that we have to think not only of things or separate entities (e. It is not clear from the text whether by ‘starting-points’ Diocles means fundamental physical states of affairs or logical postulates that should be accepted as valid without further demonstration, comparable to the logical postulates discussed by Aristotle in Metaphysics ,19 but perhaps this is not relevant to the point he wants to make: ‘honey is laxative’ (to mention just an imaginary example) is similar to a postulate like ‘a statement p and its negation not-p cannot both be true at the same time under the same conditions’ in that it does not admit of demonstration. Whereas a real principle like a logical postulate is undemonstrable without qualification (‰pläv, one is tempted to say), foodstuffs and their effects are so only ‘in some way’ (tr»pon tin†). These are usually translated in an Aristotelian-like way by ‘naturally’, ‘by nature’, or ‘normally’, suggesting as Diocles’ intention that it is in the 18 Cf. Diocles of Carystus on the method of dietetics 83 nature of things that many things look like, or are taken as, principles. Yet if we connect the use of the word phusis here with that in section 7 above, a more comprehensible view emerges: phusis again refers to the nature of the substance in question, for example the foodstuff, and kat‡ fÅsin means ‘according to their nature’, ‘in virtue of their nature’. In section 7 the ‘whole nature’ was said to be the cause of the effect the foodstuff normally produces; thus it is relatively easy to understand the statement that in virtue of their nature these foodstuffs and their producing such-and-such an effect are like principles. For the purpose of clarity, let me paraphrase what I think Diocles’ line of thought in this whole fragment amounts to. A foodstuff has its effect due not to one of its particular qualities but to its nature as a whole; as soon as we descend to a level that is lower (e. To be sure, we might be able to explain why honey is sweet (which is, after 21 Jaeger: ‘von Natur’; Torraca: ‘secondo natura’. Kullmann takes kat‡ fÅsin as belonging to ˆrca±v: ‘Viele Gegebenheiten gleichen in gewisser Weise bestimmten naturgemaßen Prinzipien, so daß sie¨ keine Darlegung uber die Ursache zulassen’ (¨ 1974, 351) and he comments on p. Smith’stranslation(‘manythingsareinsomefashionlikefirstprinciplesinnature’) is not explicit on this point, like Frede’s paraphrase: ‘He also maintained that we should treat many facts of nature as primitive, rather than try to explain them in terms of some questionable theory which would serve no further purpose’ (‘Introduction’, 1985, xxii). Bertier’s paraphrase goes too far beyond what is in the text: ‘Apport insignifiant des theories explicatives, dans la mesure ou les realites´ ` ´ ´ contiennent en elles-memes le reflet de leurs principes, et oulˆ ` atheorie n’est qu’une repetition de´ ´ ´ la description du fait’ (1972, 32). Gottschalk (private correspondence) understands the whole sentence as follows: ‘(a) archai, because they are archai, cannot be explained or demonstrated, and (b) any train of reasoning, even if it does not start from the most universal and ultimate archai, must start from something accepted as true for the purpose of that argument, a quasi-arche not subjected to further analysis or demonstration’, and he takes the words kat‡ fÅsin as expressing that ‘Our using such propositions [e. Peck in his 1928 Cambridge PhD thesis ‘Pseudo-Hippocrates Philosophus; or the development of philosophical and other theories as illustrated by the Hippocratic writings, with special reference to De victu and De prisca medicina’, pp. On the level of its nature and with regard to the effect it produces, a foodstuff ‘resembles’ (›oike) a genuine undemonstrable starting- point – although it is not a starting-point in the absolute sense: the words ‘in some way’ serve the purpose of qualifying the resemblance that exists between a genuine starting-point and a foodstuff which, from a certain point of view, behaves like a starting-point. To say it with some exaggeration (which goes beyond what is in the text): there is a causal ‘gap’ between the nature of a foodstuff as being causally responsible for certain dietetic effects on the one hand, and the nature of the foodstuff as being the result of a certain sum of elements or qualities. Since no subject of ‘make mistakes’ (diamart†nousin) is specified, it seems that he is still referring to the same group as in section 8 (but see below). These people, he says, miss the truth (note the similarity to the wording at the end of section 7), because their explanations are ill-founded. The third objection of ‘implausibility’ introduces the notion of persuasiveness of the doctor’s statements – an element which is also reflected in section 11 in the words ‘more reliable’ (pist»teron) and which is familiar from the Hippocratic writings. It is important to note the use of ‘rather’ (mŽllon), and to see to what exactly the habit of putting more trust in the results of long-term experience is said to be preferable: the ill-founded and undue 22 Cf. Diocles of Carystus on the method of dietetics 85 causal explanations of the groups mentioned in the above. While ‘those who believe that one should state a cause for all [things]’ (to±v p†ntwn o«om”noiv de±n l”gein a«t©an) clearly refers to the group criticised in section 8, it is less clear who are meant by the words ‘those who state causes in this way’ (to±v m•n oÔn oÌtwv a«tiologoÓsi). The most likely possibility is that it refers to those who are criticised in the sentence immediately preceding it, that is those who make mistakes because their causal explanations are ill-founded; but this is not quite compatible with section 9, where the lack of a change of subject suggests that Diocles’ additional criticism (‘in addition’, pr¼v d• toÅtoiv) still applies to the same group. Another possibility is that ‘those who state causes in this way’ are the ones criticised in the first part of the fragment (the champions of claims one and two), although it is a bit awkward to take the phrase ‘in this way’ (oÌtwv) as referring not to the ill-founded ‘stating the cause’ (l”gein tŸn a«t©an) mentioned just before but to what was discussed in section 7. Perhaps this difficulty becomes less urgent when we consider how the three claims Diocles criticises are interrelated. As I said, at first sight it seems that in his refutation of claim three in section 8, Diocles is arguing against a rather different group from the one which is his target in the earlier part of the fragment (claims one and two). Yet after reading the whole fragment, it is easy to see why he discusses these claims in the same context and in this order. The first claim is the weakest, in that it does not commit itself to the assumption of a causal nexus between quality and power; consequently, its empirical refutation is likewise easy. Subsequently, this empirical refutation is used by Diocles as an argument against the second claim, which is one of the possible implications of the first claim. Finally, this second claim can in its turn be seen as a possible instance of the third 26 See Smith (1979) 184. Bertier rightly concedes that Diocles does not reject causal explanation altogether (1972, 32). I cannot endorse Smith’s translation ‘But we must seek a cause for what we accept. It seems that Diocles is criticising views he believes to be erroneous rather than addressing distinct groups, each of which held one of the views in question. Thus we may understand why Diocles in section 10 syntactically presents the two groups as different, while at the same time marking a close connection between them (‘those who state causes in this way’, to±v m•n oÌtwv a«tiologoÓsi). Both claim one and claim two can easily be understood as manifestations or consequences of too strict an application of the quest for causes, which is what claim three amounts to. As for Diocles’ own position, if the above explanation of the words ‘the whole nature’ and ‘by nature’ is acceptable, both sections of the fragment are closely interrelated and rooted in a consistent conviction. The history of medicine was regarded as an ongoing process of exchange of ideas between members of the same ‘school’, of indiscriminate acceptance of the views of greater authorities (‘influence’) or of vigorous polemics against them.

Oral administration results in longer duration of action buy accutane 10mg line, increased systemic effects accutane 40mg cheap, and less potential for rebound congestion and dependence buy accutane 30mg with mastercard. Inhaled corticosteroids (1) Topical corticosteroids include beclomethasone (Beconase, Vancenase) and flunisolide (Nasalide). Cromolyn and nedocromil (1) Cromolyn and nedocromil are antiasthma agents with anti-inflammatory activity; they may also be used to treat rhinitis. Cough is produced by the cough reflex, which is integrated in the cough center in the medulla. The initial stimulus for cough probably arises in the bronchial mucosa, where irritation results in bronchoconstriction. Antitussive agents Chapter 9 Drugs Acting on the Pulmonary System 213 (1) Codeine, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone (a) Codeine, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone are opiates that decrease sensitivity of the central cough center to peripheral stimuli and decrease mucosal secretions. Expectorants stimulate the production of a watery, less-viscous mucus; they include guaifenesin. Mucolytics: Acetylcysteine (1) Acetylcysteine reduces the viscosity of mucus and sputum by cleaving disulfide bonds. Which of the following statements regarding allergy practice complaining of chronic cough the pharmacokinetics of theophylline is correct? The condition (A) It is primarily metabolized by the kidney occurs about twice a week and is beginning to (B) Its metabolism depends on age interfere with his studies. Which of the follow- (C) It is poorly absorbed after oral ing would be most appropriate treatment for administration this patient? Which of the following statements correctly (C) Diphenhydramine describes the action of theophylline? Which of the following is most likely re- (B) It can cause diarrhea sponsible for the increase in liver enzymes? Which of the following statements about the mechanism of action of ipratropium is correct? In the last (C) It decreases mast cell release of histamine month, he has used his albuterol inhaler at least (D) It blocks the action of histamine at H1 20 times following baseball practice, but he has receptors not been waking much at night. Zileuton is useful in the treatment of asthma lowing would be the best change in treatment because it for this patient? This is a fairly classical presentation of asthma, which should be confirmed with further pulmonary testing. Mild persistent asthma can be treated several ways (Table 9-1), but inhaled glucocorticoids are very effective. Omalizumab is for patients who are refractory to other treatments and those with allergies. Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine are poorly effective in asthma, and theophyl- line is only moderately effective. Zileuton is a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor that can cause increases in hepatic enzymes and altered liver function. It decreases the rate of heparin metabolism, leaving patients prone to easy bruising. Zafirlukast and albuterol are antiasthmatic agents but do not alter liver enzymes. Aspirin might cause bleeding disorders, but the low dose this patient is taking is unlikely to be responsible for the liver enzyme abnormalities. The patient’s asthma is worsening, especially in response to exercise or increased allergen exposure, and the excessive of short-acting b2-agonists requires a change in medication. Oral glucocorti- coids have many adverse effects, and zileuton and nedocromil are unlikely to be sufficiently effi- cacious in the worsening asthma. The metabolism of theophylline depends on age; the half-life of the drug in chil- dren is much shorter than in adults. Theophylline may have several mechanisms of action, but its adenosine-recep- tor antagonist activity and the inhibition of phosphodiesterase are the best understood. Opioids act centrally to decrease the sensitivity of the cough center; they also decrease propulsion in the bowel. It does not cross the blood–brain barrier and does not block mediator release or H1-receptors. By inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, zileuton reduces leukotriene biosynthesis; it does not inhibit (and in fact it might increase) prostaglandin synthesis. Membrane-associated receptors transmit signals into the cell by a variety of ‘‘second messen- ger’’ mechanisms, including the following: a. Increased phosphoinositide turnover via increased phosphoinositide kinase activity 2+ 2+ c. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation on specific proteins by the action of tyrosine kinases B. Intracellular receptors bind hydrophobic hormones (which penetrate the plasma membrane easily) such as cortisol, retinol, and estrogen inside the cell—either in the cytoplasm or the nucleus. Intracellular receptors modulate the transcription rate of specific target genes to change the levels of cellular proteins. The endogenous ligand for this receptor is ghrelin, a peptide secreted by the stomach in response to fasting. Somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone has two forms, a 14-amino acid peptide and a 28- amino acid peptide that are produced by differential proteolysis from the same precursor. It also inhibits the secretion of vasodilator hormones, especially within the gut. Adverse effects of octreotide include nausea, cramps, and increased gallstone formation. This occurs by modu- lating the function of the hypophyseal–pituitary gonadal axis (Fig. Chemical castration, which is useful in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers and hyperplasias such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, and fibroids b. Adverse effects include a transient worsening of symptoms, hot flashes, and induction of ovar- ian cysts in the first months of long-term treatment. The trophic hormones act on peripheral organs such as the ovary or testis to increase the production of gonadal steroids. Gonadal steroids in turn exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary. Chapter 10 Drugs Acting on the Endocrine System 219 (3) Leuprolide acetate may be used to treat prostate cancer, prostatic hypertrophy, breast cancer, endometriosis, and fibroids. These include (1) Antipsychotics, including chlorpromazine and haloperidol (2) Antidepressants, including imipramine (3) Antianxiety agents, including diazepam c. Inhibition of prolactin secretion can be produced by a number of dopamine agonists. It is more effective in reducing hyperprolactinemia than bromocriptine and has a long half-life that permits twice-weekly dosing. Therapeutic uses of these agents include the inhibition of prolactin secretion in amenor- rhea, galactorrhea, and prolactin-secreting tumors; the correction of female infertility sec- ondary to hyperprolactinemia; and the treatment of Parkinson disease. Peak blood levels are obtained in 2–4 hours; activ- ity persists for 36 hours after administration, because of the relatively long half-life of soma- tomedins.

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Several clinical studies have tested new therapies directly targeting B lymphocytes generic 40mg accutane with visa. Flow cytometry of circulating peripheral B lymphocytes have been used to define pathogenic subsets of the disease and assess therapeutic efficacy discount accutane 10mg with visa. These promising candidate biomarkers need to be validated through rigorous discount 20mg accutane fast delivery, large-scale multicenter studies. These polymorphisms, when collectively correlated, should provide a deeper understanding on the mecha- nism of onset and progression of lupus and lupus nephritis, and can determine the severity of these diseases in patients irrespective of their ethnicity. The test, which includes a functional assay, can provide significant clues with regard to the progres- sion and severity of these diseases in these patients over a period of time. Environmental factors are generally consid- ered to play a role with systemic immune reactions precipitating a cascade of inflammatory reactions. Some are for relief of pain whereas others are aimed at modifying the disease process. Because traditional pharmacotherapy in rheumatology has been empirical and because of the slow acting nature of many anti-rheumatic medi- cations, the risk of significant side effects and the increasing armamentarium of drugs available, pharmacogenetics is particularly relevant to rheumatology. There are many scientific and non-scientific concerns that should be addressed in future studies. One possible cause of the differences in the effectiveness and adverse drug reac- tions is genetic variation in how individuals metabolize drugs. One of the primary clinical applications that Interleukin is pursuing is the development of a pharmacogenetic test to assist physi- cians in deciding which therapeutic drugs to prescribe patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Although the efficacy of biological therapy has undoubtedly been established, the response differs considerably between individuals. This variability between indi- viduals has stimulated search for biomarkers predictive of treatment response. Such a bio- marker panel could be used as a diagnostic test to direct therapeutic options. There is a need for reliable biomarkers to assist clinical diagnosis and classify patients into erosive and non-erosive forms at the earliest stage. However, an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications led to the withdrawal of rofecoxib and restrictions on valdecoxib and celecoxib. There is a potential for application of pharmacogenetic studies to identify patients who are susceptible to cardiovascular complications so that the use of these drugs in such patients can be avoided. However, many patients experience primary or secondary response failure, suggesting that individualization Universal Free E-Book Store 558 17 Personalized Approaches to Immune Disorders of treatment regimens may be beneficial. Early monitoring may help optimize dosing regimens for individual patients, dimin- ish side effects, and prevent prolonged use of inadequate infliximab therapy. Two subsets are associated with different environmental and genetic risk factors, histology and disease outcome. Personalized Approaches to Improve Organ Transplantation Matching in organ transplantation is already personalized. Management of compli- cations, the most important of which is organ rejection, can be improved by per- sonalized approaches. Two examples of typical organ transplants, kidneys and heart, will be used to illustrate how personalized approaches can improve organ transplantation results. Personalization of Kidney Transplantation Although tissue and blood matching is done prior to organ transplantation, there are still problems of rejection after transplantation. With immunosuppressants, a transplanted kid- ney can survive and function well for years. Immunosuppressive drugs make transplant patients more likely to Universal Free E-Book Store Personalized Approaches to Improve Organ Transplantation 559 suffer heart disease, diabetes, infections and cancer. These drugs are also toxic, and they can slowly poison the very kidney they are protecting. They can also cause hypertension and hyperlipidemia, eventually leading to the failure of the new kid- ney transplant – a condition known as chronic allograft nephropathy. Unlike acute rejection, which is entirely the result of the immune system attack- ing the transplanted organ, chronic allograft nephropathy may be a result of the immune system, the immunosuppressive drugs, or both. It is a major problem in kidney transplantation and >50 % of biopsies taken from kidney transplant patients who appeared to be doing well only 2 years after transplantation already show signs of chronic allograft nephropathy. Serum creatinine, the currently used biomarker to monitor renal transplant patients, is an insensitive, late-trailing indicator of graft function. When creatinine levels are elevated, biopsies are generally performed to assess whether graft function has been compromised and, if so, identify the cause through histological analysis. They carry the risk of complications and, in one third of the cases, fail to yield useful, actionable information. Gene expression profiling could be used to define a unique molecular signature for chronic allograft nephropathy. Use of this knowl- edge could help to personalize kidney transplantation and reduce the morbidity. Transplant Genomics Inc is developing tests that use a broad range of genomic and proteomic tools capable of revealing the complexity of the underlying biology, which is well known to be highly heterogeneous. Compared to conventional methods, these tests will enable earlier detection of graft dysfunction and differen- tial diagnosis among actionable causes, providing an opportunity for physicians to take clinical actions to prolong graft and patient survival. Personalization of Cardiac Transplantation AlloMap MolecularTesting (CareDx Inc) is a non‐invasive gene expression test used to aid in the identification of heart transplant recipients who have a low prob- ability of moderate/severe acute cellular rejection at the time of testing in conjunc- tion with standard clinical assessment. Use of AlloMap is also included in the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Practice Guidelines, the worldwide standard for the care of heart transplant patients. Prediction of Rejection for Personalizing Anti-rejection Treatment Surgical techniques have improved survival rates for pediatric organ transplantation dramatically over the last 25 years. Anti-rejection medications are important because, while they make transplantation possible, but they also can have adverse side effects that can themselves become life-threatening, such as infections and cancers. Pre-transplant prediction of which patients are more likely to experience rejection may be used to tailor anti-rejection medications accordingly. These muta- tions can be transmitted from parent to child in certain patterns that indicate if a transplant candidate is predisposed to rejection, a rejection-free state or tolerance, a rare occurrence whereby anti-rejection medications no longer are required. Based on the results of this study, a patient more likely to reject a transplanted organ may someday receive high doses of anti-rejection medicine initially. Those who are less likely to reject could have lower doses, or less potent combinations. By applying individualized anti-rejection strategies before the transplant even occurs, the inves- tigators hope to reduce rejection rates and drug-induced side effects for pediatric liver transplant from 50 % to ~20 %. Personalized Immunosuppressant Therapy in Organ Transplants Organ transplants are one of the earlier examples of personalized therapy in which organs are matched to the individuals. In spite of this graft-versus-host disease and organ reject remain significant problems. Several immunosuppressent therapies are available now and the responses of individual patients to these vary.

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Some of these same metabolites can be measured in a sophis- ticated test for body biochemistry called an organic acid test discount 20mg accutane amex. A morning urine test for organic acids done by an experienced lab (Metametrix accutane 40mg with visa, Genova Diagnostics 10 mg accutane visa, Doctor’s Data, or Great Plains Laboratories; see Resources and Organizations) can give a wealth of information regarding true body biochemistry. There are many serious inflammatory or autoimmune condi- tions that, with appropriate implementation of fasting with water, juice, vegetable broth, or even just an intake of only fruit, vegeta- - 207 - staying healthy in the fast lane bles, and water, can result in profound improvement in very seri- ous conditions. Water, juice, or vegetable broth-only diets, as well as eating only fruit and vegetables, while generally very safe in the short term, should have the approval, knowledge, and oversight of a physician. If this is not possible, you can find a fasting-knowledge- able physician by contacting the International Association of Hy- gienic Physicians (iahp. This is a professional association for licensed, primary care physicians—medical doctors, osteopaths, chiropractors, and naturopaths—who specialize in therapeutic fasting supervision. A very experienced group of health profes- sionals that do medically supervised fasting is True NorthHealth Center, in Santa Rosa, California (healthpromoting. An excellent example of the incredible anti-inflammatory pow- er of fasting is shown in this review paper of six cases of severe autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus ery- thematosus, fibromyalgia, mixed connective tissue disease) where subjects underwent seven to twenty-four days of water fasting with dramatic reductions in symptoms plus outstanding weight loss. The individuals were then re-introduced to a carefully designed vegan diet to maintain symptom relief. We can reverse this excess inflammation that causes disease by changing to an anti- inflammatory diet (and lifestyle). Specializing in comprehensive panels that combine standard and innovative biomarkers to provide a more com- plete understanding of specific biological systems. The Blue Zone: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who’ve Lived the Longest by Dan Buettner (2008). Building Bone Vitality: A Revolutionary Diet Plan to Prevent Bone Loss and Reverse Osteoporosis—Without Dairy Foods, Calcium, Estrogen, or Drugs by Amy Joy Lanou, PhD, and Michael Castleman (2009). The China Study: Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-Term Health by T. Diet For A New America: How Your Food Choices Affect Your Health, Happiness, and the Future of Life on Earth by John Robbins (1987). Doctor Neal Barnard’s Program for Reversing Diabetes: The Scientifically Proven System For Reversing Diabetes Without Drugs by Neal D. The Engine 2 Diet: The Texas Firefighter’s 28-Day Save-Your-Life-Plan that Lowers Cholesterol and Burns Away the Pounds by Rip Esselstyn (2009). The Food Revolution, How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our World by John Robbins (2001). Healthy at 100: The Scientifically Proven Secrets of the World’s Healthiest and Longest-Lived Peoples by John Robbins (2007). Jack Canfield’s Key to Living the Law of Attraction: A Simple Guide to Creating the Life of Your Dreams by Jack Canfield and D. Living With Joy; Keys To Personal Power and Spiritual Transformation by Sanaya Roman (1989). The Longevity Diet: Discover Calorie Restriction—the Only Proven Way to Slow the Aging Process and Maintain Peak Vitality by Brian M. The Okinawa Program: How the World’s Longest-Lived People Achieve Everlasting Health—And How You Can Too by Bradley J. Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease: The Revolutionary, Scientifically Proven, Nutrition-Based Cure by Caldwell B. The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook by Martha Davis, Elizabeth Robbins Eshelman, and Matthew McKay (2008). Reverse Heart Disease Now: Stop Deadly Cardiovascular Plaque Before It’s Too Late by Stephen T. The Success Principles: How to Get from Where You Are to Where You Want to Be by Jack Canfield (2007). The Unhealthy Truth: How Our Food Is Making Us Sick and What We Can Do About It by Robyn O’Brien (2009). Whitewash: The Disturbing Truth About Cow’s Milk and Your Health by Joseph Keon (2010). Percentage of total deaths, death rates, age-adjusted death rates for 2007, percentage in age-adjusted death rates in 2007 from 2006, and ratio age-adjusted death rates by race and sex for the 15 leading causes of death for the total population in 2007: United States. Corey, “Incidence of Adverse Drug Re- actions in Hospitalized Patients: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies. Note: Loss factors presented here are first estimates and are intended to serve as a starting point for additional research and discussion. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean Buzby, Meat Consumption Patterns in the United States Over the Last 100 Years. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean Buzby, Fats and Oil Consumption Patterns in the United States Over the Last 100 Years. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean Buzby, Calorie Sweetener Consumption Pat- terns in the United States Over the Last 100 Years. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean Buzby, Cheese Consumption Patterns in the United States Over the Last 100 Years. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean Buzby, Flour and Cereal Product Consump- tion Patterns in the United States Over The Last 100 Years. Food Consumption as a % of Calories, New York Coalition for Healthy School Food, Copyright 2009. Special thanks to Amie Hamlin, Executive Director of The New York Coalition for Healthy School Food for permission to reproduce this chart. Stacey Rosen and Shahla Shapouri, “Obesity in the Midst of Unyielding Food Insecurity in Developing Countries. Ken Dychtwald, About Age Wave–A Visionary Company with Unparalleled Know-How About the Maturing Marketplace. How You Can–at Any Age–Dramatically In- crease Your Life Span and Your Health Span (New York: Random House, 2006), xv. How You Can–at Any Age–Dramatically In- crease Your Life Span and Your Health Span (New York: Random House, 2006), xvii. Percentage of total deaths, death rates, age-adjusted death rates for 2007, percentage in age-adjusted death rates in 2007 from 2006, and ratio age-adjusted death rates by race and sex for the 15 leading causes of death for the total population in 2007: United States. Ogden among others, “Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Ex- treme Obesity Among Adults: United States, Trends 1976–1980 Through 2007–2008. Cynthia Ogden and Margaret Carroll,Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, Trends 1963–1965 Through 2007–2008. Trends in Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 1963–2008 (Figure 1). Children and Adolescents Aged 2–19, For Selected Years 1963–1965 Through 2007–2008 (Table 1). Olshansky among others, “A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century. Hodan Farah Wells and Jean Buzby, Meat Consumption Patterns in the Unit- ed States Over the Last 100 Years.